‘Phillip was authorised to see to the defence of the colony’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

1790 – December, Sydney: By December 1790 Governor Captain Arthur Phillip RN knew ‘certain officers’ of the newly arrived New South Wales Corps (June 1790) – led by Lieutenant John Macarthur an ambitious junior officer – were circling the tents.

In December 1790 the Pitt Administration was in danger of losing New South Wales. The threat however did not come from the First Nations’ Peoples as, the previous year 1789, 50% of local Eora Aborigines had contracted smallpox and were dead. See: A Lethal Weapon Smallpox – Boston 1775 – Sydney 1789

1790 – 9 December, Botany Bay: ‘On the 9th of the month, a serjeant of marines, with three convicts, among whom was M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the person of whom Bannelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred) went out on a [kangaroo] shooting party’. Marine Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Phillip knew the serious threat to King and Country came from within military ranks but, isolated with no naval support, he had but one option in his armoury – diversion  and one (1) sure arrow, the ‘hated’ John M’Entire .

HMS Sirius had been wrecked off Norfolk Island in March 1790 and in April HMS Supply sailed to Jakarta to buy urgently needed food and medicines to save the starving Sydney settlement from complete disaster. Missing in Action HMS Sirius & HMS Supply

Governor Phillip a brilliant strategist, but ailing following his own spearing in September 1790 and, isolated in the midst of an extremely hostile soldiery hatched a plot that.,from intelligence supplied by the captured Bennalong, he believed would not fail. See: Manly Location, Location, Location

John M’Entire, Phillip’s convict game-keeper and an excellent ‘marksman’ was the perfect patsy. With few friends in the white camp he could be eliminated with little fear of back-lash from that quarter; hated and dreaded by the Eora his inclusion in the ‘shooting party’ was sure to provoke.. See: Kidnapped – Manly – What’s in a Name

1790 – 9 December, Sydney:  M’Entire accompanied by a senior NCO and two (2) convict companions  set off from Sydney at dawn on the 9th of December to walk a well-trodden path to Botany Bay where they intended to sleep overnight in a recently ‘erected small hut formed of boughs’.

1790 – 10 December, Botany Bay: ‘About one o’clock, the sergeant was awakened by a rustling noise in the bushes…Indians…one [Pemulway]…launched his spear at M’Entire, and lodged it in his left side…the wounded man immediately drew back and joining his party, cried, ‘I am a dead man’.

1790 – 11 December, Sydney: The group returned to Sydney with the mortally wounded M’Entire who ‘expressed a longing desire not to be left to expire in the woods’.

1790 – 12 December, Sydney: ‘To gain knowledge of their [Aborigines’] treatment of similar wounds, one of the surgeons made signs of extracting the spear; but this they violently opposed, and said, if it were done, death would instantly follow’. Tench’s ‘First Four Years’ informs this narrative unless attributed otherwise.

William Balmain the senior surgeon rejected their advise; ‘the extraction was…judged practicable and was accordingly performed’.  Its removal did M’Entire no favours, death did not come quickly, he died on 21 January 1791.

1790 – 13 December, Rose Hill: ‘The governor was at Rose Hill when this accident happened. On the day after he returned to Sydney… I [Tench] received a direction to attend the governor at head quarters immediately.

His excellency pitched upon me ready to march tomorrow morning at daylight to execute the command…put ten [10] to death…bring in the heads of the slain…bring away two [2] prisoners…I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners…in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’.


‘The bloody raw power of decapitation…the eternal tension between drama and control…lies at the heart of the death penalty’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta Books, London 2015

Pemulway’s assault on McEntire was a targeted attack by a known assailant – ‘put ten to death’ – indiscriminate retribution – punished both innocent and guilty.

Governor Phillip’s savage General Orders – illegal then as now – stunned Tench; ‘here the governor stopped and address[ed] himself to me’.

‘I begged to offer for consideration...instead of destroying ten [10] persons the capture of six [6] a part might be set aside for retaliation; and the rest, at a proper time, liberated, after having seen the fate of their comrades…this scheme his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding “if six [6] cannot be taken let this number be shot”. See: Terror – Arthur’s Algorithm – ‘instil universal terror’ – Open Sesame


To that end Tench assembled a detachment of fifty (50) troops; ‘consisting of two [2] captains, two [2] subalterns, and forty [40] privates, with a proper number of non-commissioned officers,  from the garrison’.

1790 – 14 December, Sydney: At four o’clock on the morning of the 14th...led by myself [Tench] we marched with three days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners…hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain. By nine o’clock this terrific procession reached the peninsula, at the the head of Botany Bay’.

For Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples the make-up of this detachment is of utmost importance.

‘The Marines, members of the Royal Navy …prey to starvation, lethargy and despair remained in New South Wales only as long as they had to and from 1790 Australia was to be garrisoned by the army’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia, 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986

Dr Stanley’s picture of starving lethargic despairing marines, Robinson Cruscos marooned and left to starve, aligns with Tench’s assessment of his men. See: Abandoned and Left to Starve – January 1788 to June 1790

The misery and horror of our situation cannot be imparted even by those who have suffered under it.‘The insufficiency of our ration soon diminished our execution of labour. Both soldiers and convicts pleaded such loss of strength, as to find themselves unable to perform their accustomed tasks’.

It is therefore safe to assert the bulk of ‘forty privates’ in this ‘terrific procession’ were infantry-men of the recently arrived New South Wales Corps who came with a second fleet – ‘Britain’s Grim Armada’– in June 1790. See: Dancing with Slavers – Britain’s Grim Armada- The Dead and the Living Dead

1790 – 14 December, Botany Bay: ‘By 9 o’clock [we] reached the peninsula, at the head of Botany Bay’.

Heavily laden soldiers thrashed about, sweating and swearing as magpies swooped and; ‘after having walked in various directions until four o’clock, without seeing a native, we halted for the night’.

1790 – 15 December, Botany : At first light the following day they spotted their quarry; ‘five Indians on the beach…before we came near enough to effect our purpose [they] ran off’.

Sloppy map-reading had led the detachment astray; ‘instead of finding ourselves on the south-west arm, we came suddenly upon the sea shore, at the head of the peninsula, about midway between the two arms’.

Another stifling frustrating day spent in a muddy quagmire was followed by a; ‘night of restless inquietude, where weariness is denied repose by swarms of musquitoes and sand-flies, which bite and sting the traveller, without measure or intermission’.

1790 – 16 December, Sydney: Tench, his troops exhausted their provisions low, abandoned his mission; ‘we bent our steps homeward, and after wading breast-high through two arms of the sea, as broad as the Thames at Westminster, were glad to find ourselves at Sydney between one and two o’clock in the afternoon’.

The detachment straggled into camp hot thirsty, stinking uniforms stiff with salt and mud. And they came alone with no heads and no prisoners to ‘execute in the most public and exemplary manner’.

Surely a win-win for Governor Phillip, he had asserted his authority at no cost, that should have been the end of it, but it was not.

1790 – 17 December: The morning Tench’s men returned from Botany Bay Waaksamheyd the 300 ton Dutch brig Lieutenant Ball of HMS Supply had chartered at Jakarta in July 1790 – arrived from Batavia crammed with tons of food and medicines.

She was received with rapture but wily Governor Phillip saw danger in her arrival; ripe for seizure Waaksamheyd also brought hope of escape.

Indeed freedom for some was realised.

Deter Smidt, Waaksamheyd’s Dutch master, assisted eleven (11) escape – nine (9) convicts, Emanuel a baby and three (3) year old Charlotte – the ‘Botany Bay escapees’ as they became known escaped Sydney in Governor Phillip’s own cutter and, in an epic sea-saga, rowed to Timor.  See: Boswell Goes Into Bat for the Botany Bay Escapees


‘Our first expedition having so totally failed, the governor resolved to try the fate of a second; and the ‘painful pre-eminence’ again devolved on me’.

Despite Waakssamheyd with her bounty, perhaps because of her presence, Phillip ordered a second assault on the Bidgigal of Botany Bay.

‘The orders which I [Tench] was commanded to act differing in no respect from the last. If six [6] cannot be taken let this number be shot…bring away two [2] prisoners…I [Phillip] am resolved to execute…in the most public and exemplary manner’.

1790 – 22 December, Sydney: ‘A little before sun-set on the evening of the 22d, we marched. Lieutenant Abbot, and ensign Prentice of the New South Wales corps, three [3] serjeants, three [3] corporals, and thirty [30] privates completed the detachment [with] ropes, hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’.

However this time Tench approached his task very differently; ‘In order to deceive the natives, and prevent them from again frustrating our design……it was now also determined, being full moon, that our operations should be carried on in the night, both for the sake of secrecy, and for avoiding the extreme heat of the day’.

This ‘night raid’ approach set a precedent for ‘future’ confrontations between the invaders and the invaded. See: Dark Matter, Lieutenant Macarthur, The New South Wales Corps &  Governor Phillip, Major Grose, Captain Paterson, Governors Hunter, King, Bligh

1790 – 23 December, Botany Bay: At dawn the search to catch, kill and behead Aborigines began again. As before seasonal ‘Christmas’ high tides surged in and turned firm ground into muddy swampland.

Later that day some soldiers nearly drowned when, hampered by heavy scarlet woollen uniforms, they were sucked into what Tench described ‘a rotten spongy…Serbian bog’. Guns jammed with mud, hair matted the troops, their once sodden clothes now stiff, passed yet another night of ‘restless inquietude’.

1790 – Christmas Eve, Sydney: ‘Our final effort was made at half past one o’clock  next morning…ending in disappointment and vexation. At nine o’clock we returned to Sydney to report our fruitless peregrination‘.

‘Fruitless’ – not so – and it is Tench caught in the eye of the storm who tells us so.

1790 – 28 December, Sydney: ‘But if we could not retaliate on the murderer of M’Entire, we found no difficulty in punishing offences committed within our own observation.

Two natives robbing the potatoe [sic] garden…a party of soldiers dispatched…the[ir] ardour transported them so far, that, instead of capturing the offenders, they fired in among them…[one] Ba-g-ai…was dead’.


‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries…These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

2018: The First Nations’ Peoples with laser accuracy can pinpoint their near annihilation to Governor Phillip’s loyalty to King and Country.

Currently Governor Phillip’s General Orders of December 1790 are written off as ‘charade – a melodramatic show of force’. Indeed a recent high-profile publication makes no mention a second raid.

Certainly Marine Lieutenant William Dawes did not think them a ‘charade’; so much so he was prepared to put his life on the line.

Dawes initially refused to go on the raid of the 14th of December but complied after consulting Reverend Richard Johnson the ‘First Fleet’ Chaplain.

On his return to Sydney Dawes addressed his objections in writing to Adjacent Lowe, expressed regret for obeying and stated he would not in future comply with a similar order. See: Lieutenant William Dawes – ‘The Eternal Flame’& ‘Universal Terror’

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