Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category


Friday, April 3rd, 2020


‘For the British army, fights on the Australian frontier…that war nasty and decidedly lacking in glory’. Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986

Paris – 1783:  The American Revolutionary War of Independence (1775-83) after lengthy negotiations ended formally with the signing the Treaty of Versailles on 3 September 1783.

Britain lost herFirst New World’ Empire. The thirteen (13) colonies; North and South Carolina, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia.

Along with them went the right, legislated in 1718 by King George I, to export convicted criminals reprieved death on condition they be ‘transported out of the realm’ to America.

‘During the period 1763 and 1793 the character of the Second British Empire was being formed…the empire of commerce in the Indian and Pacific Oceans…once more the discoveries of Captain Cook were influencing the direction of Britain’s overseas expansion’. Vincent T. Harlow, Founding of the Second British Empire 1763-1793, Vol. II, 1964.

Whitehall: Hard on the heels of the War of Independence Lord Sydney the Home Secretary advised (18/21 August 1786); ‘According to the accounts given by the late Captain Cook His Majesty…having been pleased to signify his Royal Commands that 750 convicts now in this kingdom under sentence of transportation should be sent to Botany Bay on the coast of New South Wales.’. Historical Records of New South Wales, Vol. 1

London – 1786, October 12:  Captain Arthur Phillip RN; We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, and experience in military affairs, do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be said Governor of our territory called New South Wales…from the Northern extremity… Cape York…to the Southern extremity…South Cape’. His Majesty King George III to our trusted and well-loved Captain Arthur Phillip, 12 October 1786.

As expressed clearly in Governor Phillip’s official Instructions there was much more to Botany Bay than convicts.

‘It is generally appeared when we have been involved in a war with France, that Spain and Holland have engaged in hostilities against us’. John Hunter, Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, 1793, Bibliobazaar ed. 2008

New Holland’s geographical position in the Indian, Pacific and Southern Oceans made it perfectly placed for global warfare.

A military campaign, a pre-emptive strike,  was mounted to dispossess the First Nations’ Peoples of their home lands. See: Proximity Not Distance Drove Britain’s Invasion of New Holland.

 ‘After an absence of 219 days [2 October 1788 to 8 May 1789] – 51 of which lay in Table Bay Cape of Good Hope, so that, although during the[Sirius] voyage we had fairly gone around the world, we had only been 168 days in describing that circle…makes it [Port Jackson] an important Post, should it ever be necessary to carry…war in those seas…[Pacific] coast of Chile and Peru’. Hunter. op. cit.



Sunday, February 9th, 2020

Sydney Cove – 7 February, 1788: ‘We have come today to take possession of this fifth great continental division of the earth on behalf of the British people. I do not doubt that this country will prove the most valuable acquisition Great Britain ever made’. Governor Arthur Phillip RN, Historical Records of New South Wales, Vol.1

The island continent of New Holland, now Australia, was seized by force of arms in 1788.

Captain-General Governor Arthur Phillip RN on the 7th of February 1788 proclaimed ‘British Sovereignty’ over New Holland from ‘Cape York in the most northern extremity to the southern extremity… South Cape’.

The First Peoples did not give consent, nor was a treaty entered into. It remains to be done.

‘To seize from its original occupants all their symbols and monuments, probably forms the most enduring injury which one group of people can inflict upon another’. C.D. Rowley, The Destruction of Aboriginal Society, Penguin, 1974