THE THIRD MAN – CHARLES GREEN

‘The grim roll-call broke his [Cook’s) heart…the death of the astronomer Charles Green marked a wave of those who ‘departed this life’….By the end of January [1771] they had barely enough men to man the ship [HMS Endeavour]’. Vanesssa Collingridge, Captain Cook, The Life, Death and Legacy of History’s Greatest Explorer, Ebury Press, 2002

Swinton- 1734: Charles Green son of ‘a prosperous’ free-hold Yorkshire farmer, born in Swinton towards the end of 1734, received a broad education with a strong emphasis on science.

London: John his elder brother took Holy Orders and established a school in Soho, London.  It was there Charles found his ‘heavenly passion’ astronomy. After graduating he stayed on teaching mathematics.

Greenwich 1760: In 1760 Charles applied successfully for the position of Assistant Astronomer at Greenwich Observatory. He went on to serve as Chief Assistant to three (3) Astronomer Royals, James Bradley, Nathaniel Bliss and briefly Reverend Nevil Maskelyn.

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In 1675 King Charles II engaged Sir Christopher Wren to design a National Observatory. Wren considered the ruins of Greenwich Castle a perfect site. Although Oliver Cromwell’s Roundhead Model Army, during The Protectorate Interregnum (1653-59) , destroyed its buildings the foundations were intact.

Greenwich: In 1676, Rev. John Flamsteed, Britain’s inaugural Astronomer Royal, took up residence in the newly minted Greenwich Observatory. He remained in the role until his death in 1719.

In 1720 Edmond Halley of comet fame succeeded Flamsteed. He held the post for twenty-two (22) years until his death in 1742.

Rev. James Bradley followed Halley. His tenure too was lengthy 1742-1762. Bradley is celebrated principally for his work on the speed of light. In 1728 he estimated light moved at the speed of 295,000 km (183,000 miles) per second.

Not until three (3) centuries later were Bradley’s calculations amended to 299,790 km (186,290 miles) per second.

Arguably had Bradley stuck to light and left longitude to Mr. John Harrison inventor of the H-4 sea-going ‘pocket-watch’ many a sea-farer may not have met a watery end. Bradley died in 1762

Oxford: The Rev. Nathaniel Bliss succeeded Bradley .Owing to ill-health, aside from an occasional visit to the Observatory, Bliss remained in Oxford. He died in September 1764.

During Bliss’ absence Charles Green faithfully fulfilled the onerous role of principal astronomer at the Observatory. He continued in that role for more than six (6) months after Bliss’ death.

On 8 February 1765 King George III appointed Reverend Nevil Maskelyne Britain’s fifth Astronomer Royal. Maskelyne held the position in a heavenly strangle-hold for just on half a century until his death in 1811. See: Malicious Maskelyne

 LONGITUDE – THE BACK STORY

‘On the day before reliable time-keeping, the skies were used as a giant clock’. Collingridge. ibid. Random House, 2003

‘Admiral Shovell’s disastrous multishipwreck [1707] on the Scilly Isles after the turn of the eighteenth century intensified the pressure to solve the longitude problem’. Dava Sobel, Longitude, The Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time, Fourth Estate, London 1996  ibid.

London: In 1714 Parliament passed the Longitude Act offering a prize of £20,000 for the elusive ‘solution’. A Board of Longitude was established to adjudicate; ‘to prove worthy….a clock had to find longitude within half a degree’.    

‘When John Harrison arrived in London in the summer of 1730 the Board of Longitude was nowhere to be found. Although the august body had been in existence for more than fifteen years, it occupied no official headquarters. In fact, it had never met. Sobel. ibid.

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John Flamsteed, James Bradley, Nathaniel Bliss and Nevil Maskelyne, consecrated men of the Church had a lot in common, all remained wedded to old technology – the heavens.

Luna Tables and Star Catalog listing three thousand (3000) stars were the work of Rev. John Flamsteed the first Astronomer Royal appointed by King Charles II in 1675.

‘John Harrison, the man who solved the problem of longitude in 1759’. Peter Ackroyd, Revolution, Macmillan, London, 2016

However in 1765 Nevil Maskelyne continued to extol celestial navigation.  Maskelyne held ‘The Lunars‘ were the only solution to the problem of determining ‘longitude at sea’.

‘Maskelyne’s Method’ depended on four (4) men with a sextant measuring – checking – re-checking – the angular distance between moon, sun and seven (7) selected stars.

On a moonless night on a pitching weather deck many experienced sailors held it was a task ‘much too difficult for ordinary sailors’.

‘The [Nautical] Almanac represents Maskelyne’s enduring contribution to navigation – and the perfect task for him, too, as it embodied an abundance of excruciating detail’. Dava Sobel. ibid.

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‘The [Longitude] board [had] concluded in its final report in August 1762 “the Experiments already made of the [Harrison] Watch have not been sufficient to determine the Longitude at Sea”. H- 4 must needs submit to a new trial, under stricter scrutiny’. Sobel. ibid.

Greenwich – 1765:  A month or so after Maskelyne’s appointment as Astronomer Royal in mid March 1765 , Charles Green walked away from Greenwich Observatory.

Barbados: Maskelyne and Green had history. In 1764, with Nathaniel Bliss too ill to travel, Green had been tasked to team up with Maskelyne to sail to Barbados and represent the Board of Longitude.

The object of the voyage was to oversee ‘a new trial’. Yet another assessment of Harrison’s H-4 marine chronometer. For the Board of Longitude this was to be it – failure or success.

Nevil Maskelyne, in1761, began intensive work on his Nautical Almanac. .In 1764 it was nearing completion. ‘Almanac’ versus ‘pocket-watch’ the sacred versus the secular for a king’s ransom £20,000, roughly £400 millions today.

Maskelyne was determined once and for all to scuttle Harrison and his ‘watch‘. If Harrison’s invention was discredited fame and fortune would be his.

Maskelyne and Green were to shadow William, John Harrison’s son and Thomas Wyatt his referee. The two (2) men were already on the high seas making for Barbados aboard HMS Tartar with John’s now elderly father’s ‘pocket watch’.

To put all doubt to rest the Board tasked Sir John Lindsay, Tartar’s captain, to supply the required ‘stricter scrutiny’.

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Barbardos: When in May 1764 the Tarter reached Barbardos Lindsay found Green and Maskelyne, who had sailed to there in the Princess Louise, already ensconced in the local Observatory.

For Maskelyne his early arrival proved counter-productive. He had aired to anyone who would listen unwavering allegiance to ‘his lunar distance method…boast[ing] he was sure he’d clinched the case and secured the prize’. Sobel. ibid.

Sir John Lindsay quietly gathered evidence. Harrison’s team; ‘challenged Maskelyne’s fitness to judge H-4 impartially [Maskelyne] was outraged by their  accusations…in his disquieted condition, he botched the astronomical observations – even though all those present recalled there wasn’t a cloud in the sky’. Sobel. ibid.

At Barbados H-4 performed flawlessly.  The ‘pocket watch’  delivered ‘true time’ the essential ingredient required for determining longitude at sea. Charles Green’s epiphany was complete.

‘The Watch proved to tell the longitude within ten miles – three times more accurately than the terms of the Longitude Act demanded! [however] the Board of Longitude allowed months to pass without saying a word…[finally] they were “unanimously of the opinion that the said time-keeper has kept its time with sufficient correctness”. Sobel .ibid.

From then on it should have been plain sailing for John Harrison but that was not to be. As Dava Sobel has it; ‘The Board of Longitude was top-heavy with astronomers’.

Greenwich – 1765, 15 March: Charles Green logged his final official Observations on 15 of March 1765 and left the Observatory soon afterwards. It is reasonable to speculate irreconcilable differences between Maskelyne and himself centred on the H-4, were responsible for Green’s departure.

1765 – 25 March: Rev. Nevil Maskelyne appointed by King George III in February 1765 assumed the role of Britain’s fifth Astronomer Royal in March 1765.

He immediately opened up a second front in the fight against John Harrison and H-4. See: Three Yorkshire-men – James Cook, John Harrison, Charles Green  Walked Into A Bar – Maskelyne

Due in large part to Maskelyne’s obstinate scientific pride and avarice, his long tenure at Greenwich was characterised by the unnecessary loss of thousands upon thousands of Royal Naval men in both offensive and defensive mode – war and peace.

Together with an unknown number of merchant seamen and, chattel slaves in chains who sank without trace, along with cargo and booty worth untold billions. See: The Zong – Chattel Slavery & Britain’s Economic Addiction (pending)

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Tahiti – 1769: In April 1769 Lieutenant James Cook RN sailed HMS Endeavour to Tahiti in order to observe the Transit of Venus.  Long ago The Transit had been predicted by Edmond Halley of comet fame, to occur on 3 June 1769.

‘Shortly before Cook sailed [for Tahiti] Maskelyne published his Nautical Almanac’. Dava Sobel. ibid.

South Seas: Having recorded the Transit of Venus at Tahiti Lieutenant Cook RN was then required to open ‘secret Admiralty Instructions’ ordering him sail Endeavour deep into the southern oceans in search of the fabled Great South Land.

‘Compared with that of (Joseph) Banks, Mr Green’s equipment was comparatively modest’. H.C. Cameron, Sir Joseph Banks, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1966.

Maskelyne was not yet finished with John Harrison and Charles Green. Although Cook was supplied a ‘nautical [pendulum] clock’ along with assorted ‘time-keepers’ H-4  the‘pocket watch’ was not among them. See: Captain Cook Caught Short

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Dalrymple had never forgiven Cook for replacing him in the command of he expedition….Of the many charges which he made against Cook perhaps the most ridiculous was that the grounding of the Endeavour on the coral reef was due to the Captain’s misconduct in not anchoring’. Cameron. ibid.

Nor had Maskelyne the scientist who persecuted John Harrison the carpenter-artisan ‘forgiven’ the Admiralty for choosing lowly James Cook, a lowly warrant officer in the Royal Navy, to lead the Transit expedition.

Alexander Dalrymple, a wealthy Fellow of the Royal Society, was held by that august body and by Nevil Maskelyne ‘a proper person to be sent to the South Seas’.

Dalrymple never forgave Cook.  Barbados rankled and likewise, Maskelyn never forgave Charles Green’s selection over Dalrymple to be his man for the ‘South Seas’ and the Royal Society’s Observer at Tahiti.

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‘John Harrison had perfected the chronometer some years before but it is the character that authorities who for a great many years had withheld half of the prize for his achievement should also decline to make an instrument available to Cook’. A.W. Beazley, Fellowship of Three – John Hunter Surgeon, James Cook Navigator, Joseph Banks Naturalist, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1987

Strip Cove:  Astronomer Royal Maskelyne withheld H – 4 from the newly commissioned Lieutenant James Cook RN. Consider the time taken charting New Zealand’s North and South Islands. Captain Cook did not leave New Zealand waters until February 1770.

‘The great Captain Cook observed and calculated more than six hundred lunar distances to obtain the longitude of Strip Cove in New Zealand’. Gavin Menzies, 1421, Harper Collins Publishers, London, 2008

Botany Bay – 1770: On 29 April 1770 HMS Endeavour anchored in Botany Bay on the south-eastern coast of New Holland.

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Jakarta: Although much is rightly made of Cook’s success in warding off scurvy nevertheless at Batavia, present-day Jakarta, one-half of Endeavour’s starving debilitated crew succumbed to malaria and dysentery.

Of Joseph Banks’ party of ten (10) only four (4) survived Endeavour’s voyage including Banks himself. Earlier, on Terra del Fuego, two (2) of  Bank’s servants froze to death . Alexander Buchan an artist died at Tahiti following an epileptic fit. The rest fell prey to sickness at Batavia.

Charles Green died not long after Endeavour left Jakarta on the return passage to England via Cape Town. Perhaps not from drunkenness, as the Australian author of a recent ‘Cook’ book so glibly assigns for Green’s bizarre behaviour.  It could have been cerebral malaria.

England – Spithead, 1771 -13 July:  ‘In justice to the Ships Company I must say that no men ever behaved better than they have done on this occasion’. Cook’s Endeavour Journal.

Once again on home soil Cook ‘wr[o]te to the families of all those who had died in his care [including] the loved ones of Mr Green [and] George Monkhouse of Cumberland who had entrusted his sons with Cook’. Collingridge. ibid.

William Monkhouse was HMS Endeavour’s surgeon. Jonathan his midshipman brother distinguished himself by saving the ship by applying ‘fothering’ a technique he learned while in the merchant navy sailing from Virginia to London.

Great Barrier Reef:  On the 13 July 1770 in the upper northern reaches of the Great Barrier Reef, while edging cautiously towards land, Endeavour struck coral that damaged her hull.

The crew successfully applied the tricky manoeuvre; a tarred canvas sling was passed under the hull and pulled taut over the breach. The patch allowed Cook time to reach land where her timbers were repaired and the hull strengthened.

EPILOGUE

John Harrison’s earliest marine chronometer H-1 had shown, as early as 1736-37 on a supervised timed voyage London, England to Lisbon, Portugal in HMS Centurian, to be capable, when ships at sea were beyond sight of land, of supplying time-keeping sufficient to establish longitude.

London: Post the Seven Years’ War (1767-63) the race to claim ‘true time’ heated up. In 1763 Ferdinand Berthoud the Swiss born clockmaker, whose interests included the marine chronometer had, at the behest of the French King, visited John Harrison in London.

Brest: In early October of 1764 Berthoud took a French chronometer to sea on a timed trial but it seems no results have been discovered.

It is not known for certain if Antoine de Bougainville, a mathematician of note and member of Britain’s Royal Society, took a chronometer with him on France’s first successful voyage of circumnavigation, November 1766 to March 1769.

Given the number of chronometers Jean -Francois La Perouse carried with him to Botany Bay (1788) that intriguing question remains open to speculation.

London:  Again in 1766 Berthoud tried without success, to have Harrison divulge the essential elements of H-4. Thomas Mudge a prominent London watchmaker who, from time to time serviced H-4,  may have discussed its intricacies with Berthoad.

‘As it turned out, Berthoud and the other continental clock-makers did not steal Harrison’s designs in the construction of their own marine timekeepers’. Sobel. ibid.

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‘Joseph-Jerome Lalande; self-styled most famous astronomer in the universe…visited the Greenwich Observatory, exchanged pleasantries with King George III and helped smuggle out the first description of Harrison’s famous chronometer designed to determine longitude at sea’. Ken Alder, The Measure of All Things, The Free Press, Simon and Schuster, 2002

POSTSCRIPT

‘Harrison’s chronometer was useful but not essential in mapping the world’. Gavin Menzies. ibid.

Be that as it may – John Harrison’s chronometer was ‘essential’ in saving sailors’ lives and their loved ones grief and destitution. See: Lieutenant William Dawes & The ‘Eternal Flame’.

‘From the publication of Regiomantanus ephemis tables in 1474 Europeans for the first time calculated Latitude and Longitude…Regiomantanus’s tables were improved by Nevil Maskelyne.

They were published in 1767 and remained in use by Royal Navy captains and navigators well after Harrison’s chronometer was introduced. Menzies, 1421. op.cit.

Numberless English seamen suffered and died due to Maskelyne’s intransigence in favouring his Almanac while simultaneously sabotaging and actively discouraging the use of Harrison’s chronometers because of their cost. His mean-minded parsimony spread the damage across the entire maritime world and contributed to the needless loss of thousands upon thousands lives. See: Malicious Maskelyne

 

 

 

 

 

 

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