Posts Tagged ‘john m’entire’

‘TERROR’ – ARTHUR’S ALGORITHM – OPEN SESAME!

Wednesday, October 4th, 2017

‘The ability to shock bestows a kind of power’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta, London, 2014

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Headquarters: Governor Arthur Phillip – General Orders to Marine Captain Watkin Tench: ‘Infuse universal terror…put ten [10] to death…cut off, and bring back the heads of the slain’. Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Year, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples can, with laser accuracy, plot their near annihilation from Governor Arthur Phillip’s orders of December 1790.

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

Where lay the threat to Governor Phillip in December 1790? Certainly not with the Bidjigal at Botany Bay cut down by smallpox. If not the Bidjigal who was Phillip ‘enemy’? See: A Clash of Giants – Arthur Phillip & John Macarthur – The Great Pretender

‘For the Sydney people to lose 50% or more of their military capability in a few weeks was a crushing blow’. Stephen Gapps, The Sydney Wars, NewSouth Books, 2018

The previous year (1789) smallpox had killed 50% of Sydney Aborigines leaving the survivors struggling to regroup. See: Smallpox – A Lethal Weapon Boston 1775, Sydney 1789 – Robert Ross and David Collins

1790 – 9  December, Botany Bay: ‘On the 9th of the month, a sergeant of marines, with three convicts…went out on a shooting party…to the north arm of Botany Bay…among them M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the convict of whom Bannelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred)’. Tench. ibid. See: Manly – Location, Location, Location

1790 – 10 December, Botany Bay: At 1 am; ‘the serjeant was awakened by a rustling noise in the bushes’. Pemulwuy the Aboriginal warrior speared John M’Entire; ‘he expressed a longing desire not to be left to expire in the woods’. See: A Tethered Goat

1790 – 11 December, Sydney: Tench says the shooting party, with M’Entire in tow, reached Sydney in the early hours of 12 December 1790.

1790 – 13 December, Sydney: ‘I [Tench] received a direction to attend the governor at head quarters immediately’ where Governor Phillip issued his General Orders:

‘Put to death ten cut off and bring back the heads of the slain…two prisoners I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners who may be brought in, in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected…and my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’.

Pemulwuy’s spearing of M’Entire was a targeted attack by a known assailant; ‘put ten [10] to death’ was indiscriminate retaliation – destroying the innocent as well as the guilty.

Tench registered shock; ‘here the governor stopped, and addressed himself to me said, if I could propose any alternation of the orders under which I was to act’.

Tench proposed; ‘capture six [6]…a part should be set aside for retaliation; and the rest, at a proper time, liberated, after seeing the fate of their comrades. This scheme, his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding, if six [6] cannot be taken, let this number [6] be shot’.

1790 – 13 December: Tench ordered his troops, fifty (50) men – two (2) officers with the regulation ratio of non-commissioned to forty (40) private soldiers; ‘be ready to go out tomorrow morning at daylight [14th] with three [3] days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners with and hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’.  See: A Hatchet Job – Heads Off The Bidgigal of Botany Bay

For Australia’s First Peoples the make-up of this detachment is of utmost importance. By December 1790 marines of the ‘troubled’ Sydney garrison were incapable of sustained effort.

‘The main battle was about having enough to eat’. Don Watson, Story of Australia, 1984

All of ‘Phillip’s people’ had been marooned since 1788. The marines suffered profound lethargy from prolonged semi-starvation, most could barely stand let alone undertake a three (3) days march in full kit under a blazing December sun. See: Abandoned and Left To Starve at Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790

1790 – 14 December, Sydney:  So it is certain, when the section moved out for Botany Bay on the 14th of December 1790, the majority of its forty (40) rank and file would have been infantrymen of the New South Wales Corps who, in June 1790, arrived from England to relieve the beleaguered marines. See: Dark Matter

The newly arrived foot troops were first contingent of; ‘twenty-five regiments of British infantry they participated in the great struggle at the heart of the European conquest of this continent’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

‘There are two kinds of error; those of commission, doing something that should not be done, and those of omission, not doing something that should be done, the latter are much more serious than the former’. Kenneth Hoper and William Hopper, The Puritan Gift, Forward, Russell Lincoln Ackoff, I.B. Tauris, 2009.

1792 –  12 December, Sydney: Governor Phillip sailed for home in mid December 1792. Tragically for the First Australians London failed to commission a successor. Captain John Hunter RN, the second governor, would not reach Sydney until September 1795.

‘For the length of the interregnum [1792-1795] the British government was greatly at fault’. J.J. Achmuty, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Governor John Hunter.

‘Omission’ by default the immense power invested in Arthur Phillip as Governor of New South Wales, said to be unique in Britain’s long history of empire building, devolved to the military.

‘Convince them of our superiority’; there is no evidence Governor Phillip’s orders of December 1790 were ever countermanded. Extant, they served as a template that went onto govern all future confrontations between the British invaders and Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples.

1792 – 13 December: The day following Phillip’s departure Major Francis Grose commanding officer of the New South Wales Corps took control of the colony. He dismissed the civil magistrates appointed by Governor Phillip as required by official Letters Patent.

‘The traffic in spirits was commenced by the officers and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Historical Records of Australia.

Grose, wounded in the American War of Independence 1775-1783, proved a lackadaisical commander. He appointed Lieutenant John Macarthur paymaster.

‘The control of labour was largely vested in his new regimental pay-master, Lieutenant John Macarthur – a central figure in the military mafia which quickly established itself as Australia’s first governing and property-owing elite’. Arthur Phillip, Gentleman, Scholar and Seaman, Dr. Nigel Rigby, Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Dr. Pieter Van der Merwe, British National Maritime Museum, Prof. Emeritius History, Queen Mary, University of London, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London, 2018

For the next twenty-five (25) years ‘frontier war, nasty and decidedly lacking in glorycentred on Aboriginal river lands, the Deerrubin – Hawkesbury, Nepean and Grose River systems.

When Major Grose returned to England at the of 1794 Captain William Paterson, another physically and emotionally damaged ‘three bottles a day’ veteran of the American Revolutionary War succeeded him.

By 1794 over four hundred (400) settlers were farming Dharug; ‘thirty miles along the banks on both sides of the [Hawkesbury] River it has been estimated that between 1794 and 1800 at least twenty-six [26] Whites and up to two hundred [200] Aborigines were killed’. Stanley. ibid.

1795 – June, Hawkesbury:  Governor Hunter was still on the high seas when Paterson; ‘sent a detachment of two [2] subalterns and sixty [60] privates of the New South Wales to the river…to destroy as many as they could…a well to drive the natives to a distance, as for the protections of the settlers.

It gives me concern to have been forced to destroy any of these people, particularly as I have no doubt of their having been cruelly treated by some of the settlers who went out there’. Captain William Paterson to Right Hon. Henry Dundas, 15 June 1795, Historical Records of Australia. See: A Worm Hole – Richard Atkins Diary

The troops Paterson deployed to the Hawkesbury saw limited skirmishes escalate to ‘open warfare’ accelerating destruction of the Dharug whose spears, guts, and guile could not match the increased fire-power.

1795 – September: Governor John Hunter RN reached Sydney in late September 1795. Despite John Macarthur’s spirited antagonism directed at him the new governor managed to restore what passed for ‘English civil law’ in New South Wales.

1799 – March, Sydney: Four (4) years later Governor Hunter ordered ‘five [5] European] men changed with the murder of two [2] native boys’.

Lieutenant Neil MacKellar, in command at the Hawkesbury from 1797 to 1799, was called to give evidence in court.

‘Under questioning he stated that the orders issued [1795] for the destruction of Aboriginals whenever encountered, after they had committed outrages, had not been countermanded during his command at the Hawkesbury nor to his knowledge since’. Neill Mackellar, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Brigadier M. Austin

1799 – London: While the trial was in progress Hunter was informed of his recall to England. The reasons given were twofold. He had failed to stop the importation of ‘fiery Indian rum’ imported from Bengal and he did not to get along with the military thugs of the New South Wales ‘Rum’ Corps.

‘The traffic in spirits was commenced by the officers and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Records. ibid.

Teetotaller John Macarthur was prime mover in the importation of rum from Bengal. Rum bought cheaply and, sold at an exorbitant mark-up, generated immense profits for certain officers of the ‘Rum’ Corps and their cronies.

When the ex-convicts who bought their rum went broke the officers who sold it to them were on hand to buy up their farms.

From 1788 there had been continuous disputation between the civil power represented by the autocratic uniformed naval governors and the military’. John McMahon, Not a Rum Rebellion but a Military Insurrection, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 92, 2006

Lieutenant John ‘McMafia’ Macarthur was the common denominator in the recall to London of Governor Phillip’s immediate successors, the naval Governors, John Hunter, Phillip Gidley King and William Bligh.

And when he returned from a lengthy forced exile in England Macarthur was just in time to add a practised hand in the character assassination of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, the first British Governor recruited from military ranks.

1800 – Sydney: Governor Hunter was replaced by Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King, who like Hunter was another First Fleeter returning ‘home’ to Australia. See: Down the Rabbit Hole with Hunter

1800-1806: See: The Irish & the English King in Australia.

1806 – August 1806: Governor William Bligh RN arrived in Sydney orders for Governor Phillip Gidley King’s recall. See: Down The Rabbit Hole with King

1808 – 26 January, Sydney: When ‘Bounty’ Bligh made strenuous effort to stem the tsunami of grog he too found himself under attack from Macarthur. On the 20th anniversary of Captain Arthur Phillip’s raising of the Union Jack Governor Bligh was taken arrested by the New South Wales Corps. See: Australia Day Rebellion – Australia Day 1808

EPILOGUE

 ‘The natives will be made severe examples of whenever any man is wounded by them….and my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’. Governor Phillip, cited Tench. ibid

Governor Phillip General Orders of 13th and ‘differing in no respect from the last‘ were repeated on 22 December 1790. The second raid triggered an algorithm for ‘future terror’ that ‘lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth century’. Kercher. ibid.

 

A map detailing ‘the better documented’ massacres of ‘dissenting Aboriginal’ Australians from the 1790s – to the 1920s was published in 2017

 

1816 – April, Appin: The first to meet the criteria of fourteen (14) known killed occurred in Macarthur country at Broughton Pass in April 1816. Governor Lachlan Macquarie’s orders of 10 April are eerily similar to those of Governor Arthur Phillip in December 1790.in lock-step with

 

The ‘The warrior skilled at stirring the enemy proffers the bait’. Sun-Tzu, The Art of War, Penguin Books, 2009 

See: Mc Intyre – Death of a Sure Thing

 

1816: Appin:

 

 

 

 

 

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A TETHERED GOAT – JOHN McENTIRE- 10 DECEMBER 1790

Wednesday, August 30th, 2017

‘Its now about two years and three months since we first arrived at this distant country; all this while we have been as it were buried alive, never having the opportunity to hear from our friends…our hopes are now almost vanished’. Reverend Richard Johnson, 9 April 1790‘. Jack Egan, Buried Alive, Eyewitness accounts of the making of a nation 1788-92, Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1999

1790 – 3 June, Sydney: Two (2) months later; ‘Flags Up…a ship with London on her stern’. Lady Juliana, with two hundred and twenty-six ‘useless’ female convicts was first of four (4) vessels that made up Britain’s Grim Armada the second fleet.

1790, June: By the end of June the fleet’s death ships Alexander, Scarborough and Suprize arrived with approximately one thousand men. Seven hundred and fifty (750) convicts and one hundred and fifteen (115) foot soldiers – infantry, first contingent of the New South Wales Corps.

‘The great change came in the arrival with the Second Fleet of the companies of the New South Wales Corps’. Nigel Rigby, Peter van der Merwse, Glyn Williams. Pacific Explorations, Voyages of Discovery from Captain Cook’s Endeavour to the Beagle, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London, 2018

Justinian a well-stocked store-ship from England was seen off the Heads but cyclonic weather forced her out to sea. Benjamin Maitland her master sailed north as far as present-day Stockton before the weather abated sufficiently for a return to Sydney by the end of June.

But Governor Phillip was in for a rude shock; ‘the distribution of provisions rested entirely with the masters of [all] the merchantmen’. Maitland immediately opened a shop to sell his stock as did the Lady Juliana.

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, A History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

From day one – January 1788 – Governor Phillip struggled to keep starvation at bay. He authorised official hunting parties of marines and convicts .See: Abandoned and Left to Starve @ Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790

Some were sent into the bush to forage for food, others shot anything that moved, others trawled for fish while the weakest gathered shellfish along the shoreline. See: A Plague of Locusts – the Englishmen of the First Fleet.

1790 – 9 December, Botany Bay: John McIntyre, Phillip’s own game- keeper had gone out to shoot kangaroo at Botany Bay where Pemulway a young warrior speared him.

1790 – 13 December, Sydney:  Retaliation Governor Phillip summoned Marine Captain Watkin Tench to ‘Headquarters’.

Tench was ordered to march to Botany Bay at ‘day-light to-morrow morning…to put to death ten[10] we were to cut off, and bring in the heads of the slain, for which purpose, hatchets and bags would be provided [and] if practicable, bring away two [2] natives as prisoners.

I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners who may be brought in, in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

1790 – 14 December: ‘two [2] captains, two [2] subalterns, and forty [40] privates, with a proper number of non-commissioned officers’ made up the Tench detachment.

Isolated in the midst of a hostile military in order to take the heat off himself Governor Phillip chose diversion – summon a common enemy. See: Missing in Action – HMS Sirius & HMS Supply

‘From the aversion uniformly shown by all the natives to this unhappy man he [McEntire] had long been suspected of having, in his excursions, shot and injured them’. Professor G. A. Wood, Lieutenant William Dawes and Captain Watkin Tench, Royal Australian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 10, Part 1, 1924

Phillip claimed the attack on McIntyre was ‘unprovoked’. In light of what he knew it does not take a military strategist to smell a rat. Phillip’s intelligence was firm. McIntyre’s inclusion his ‘service is for the state’ was deliberate provocation. See: April Fools Day- 1776

Manly Beach: ‘Wednesday 25th November 1789; ‘It was a cloudy day with some  rain. The temperature was in the high seventies and the wind mainly from the south Bradley wrote; ‘Governor Phillip, judging it necessary that a native should be taken by force… I was ordered on this service, having the master, two petty officers a a boat’s crew with me in one of the governor’s boats’. Lieutenant Bradley RN, cited Egan, Buried Alive

Bennalong was ‘taken by force’. During months of imprisonment within British lines Phillip and Bennalong developed a close relationship. Phillip had no doubt Sydney’s Aboriginal community regarded McIntyre with ‘dread and hatred’. See: Kidnapped – Manly What’s In a Name

Although John McIntyre had  been severely wounded he was still alive on the 13th of December 1790 so it is little wonder Tench was dismayed when given his orders. As a result the scope of the initial orders was modified.

Phillip agreed to Tench’s proposal; ‘bring in six [6]…out of this, part might be set aside for retaliation; and the rest at a proper time, liberated, after having seen the fate of their comrades. This scheme, his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding if six [6] cannot be taken let that number [6] be shot. Tench. ibid. 

Marine Captain Tench and Lieutenant William Dawes both friend and confrere, aware of how McIntyre was viewed, had very different responses to Governor Phillip’s orders. See: Lieutenant William Dawes ‘The Eternal Flame’ & Universal Terror

Tench had been perfectly willing, after discussion with the Governor, to lead the expedition, and heartily enjoyed the humour of its adventures.

But Dawes, whose tour of duty it was to go out with that party, refused that duty by letter “and persisted in his refusal, even after the Governor had “taken great pains to point out the consequences of his being put under an arrest’. G.A. Wood. ibid.

Tench no doubt counselled Dawes that his refusal to obey would have dire consequences and, if Marine Major Robert Ross his Commanding Officer had not been evacuated to Norfolk Island in March 1790, he would now be under arrest.

If found guilty at court-martial Dawes could be shot for gross dereliction of duty or as a traitor hanged, drawn and quartered while still alive.

It is not known if Marine Captain David Collins judge-advocate, although not a lawyer was the settlement’s senior law man, knew that in 1782 the ‘disembowelled while alive’ barbarity had been legislated out as punishment for military treason.

Still Dawes the fleet’s principal scientific officer persisted in his refusal. Adjutant Lieutenant Lowe instructed Dawes should put his objections in writing which he did.

Nevertheless he approached Reverend Richard Johnson the First Fleet Chaplain who counselled Dawes on his  military obligation.

Subsequently Dawes ‘informed Captain Campbell that the Rev. Mr. Johnson thought he might obey the order, and that he was ready to go out with the party, which he did’. Tench. ibid.

1790 – December 14: At dawn on the 14th of December Tench’s detachment of fifty (50) men moved out for Botany Bay with; ‘three [3] days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners, and hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’. Tench. ibid. 

The raid failed – no heads, no prisoners.

1790 – December 17: ‘We bent our steps homeward; and after wading breast-high through two arms of the sea, as broad as the Thames at Westminster, were glad to find ourselves at Sydney, between one and two o’clock in the afternoon’.

However the troops returned to a very different Sydney from the settlement they left only three (3) days before. The landing stage was crammed with barrels, bales of stuff and the air filled with the heady smell of cooking.

At first light that very morning Waaksamheyd a ‘Dutch Snow’ from Jakarta had sailed into Sydney Harbour loaded with the supplies Lieutenant Ball had ‘purchased for the settlement’. See: Missing in Action – HMS Sirius & HMS Supply

1790 – December 19: ‘[Dawes] informed the Governor that he was sorry he had been persuaded to comply with the order and very clearly showed that he would not obey a similar order in future’. Tench. ibid

Lieutenant Dawes again wrote to Governor Phillip this time through Captain Campbell who, in March 1789, had replaced Major Ross as commander of the Sydney garrison when imminent starvation had forced Phillip evacuate 50% of ‘his people’ to Norfolk Island. See: Smallpox – A Lethal Weapon Boston 1775 Major Robert Ross and David Collins – Sydney 1789 

The necessity for such a letter from Dawes may have been prompted by Governor Phillip’s initial order that specified;‘ my [Phillip’s] fixed determination to repeat it, whenever future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’.

Or there may have been a very different reason.

Waaksamheyd’s arrival had opened a Pandora’s Box of possibilities; among them escape or capture of the Dutch vessel as a pathway to military insurrection and anarchy – the overthrow of Phillip as Governor and Captain-General. See: Machiavellian Macarthur

The first of these possibilities, escape with help from Waaksamheyd’s captain, was realised. A group of convicts stole Phillip’s cutter escaped from Sydney and rowed to Coupang, West Timor in one of the world’s most extraordinary sea-sagas.

From Timor, then by various means to Batavia, to Cape Town, to Portsmouth, to Newgate gaol and back to the dock of the Old Bailey where James Boswell mounted a spirited defence on their behalf. See: Boswell Goes Into Bat for the Botany Bay Escapees 

Under threat from the Sirius’ cannon mounted at Dawes Point Phillip deftly averted the seizure of Waaksamheyd. He negated a military rebellion by ordering a second raid against the Bidjigal of Botany Bay.

1790 – December 22: ‘Our first expedition having so totally failed, the governor resolved to try the fate of a second; and the ‘painful pre-eminence’ again devolved on me. The orders under which I was commanded to act differing in no respect from the last’.

When ‘a little before sunset on the evening of the 22d, we marched. Lieutenant Abbot and ensign Prentice of the New South Wales Corps were the two [2] officers under my command, and with three [3] sergeants, three [3] corporals, and thirty [30] privates completed the detachments‘ Lieutenant William Dawes was not among them.

Tench says his orders ‘differing in no respect from the lastreiterated Governor Phillip’s stated intent ‘infuse universal terror…kill 6…cut off…bring in the heads of the slain…two [2] prisoners to execute’. See: Terror – Arthur’s Algorithm

What changed however was Captain Tench’s attitude and tactics. They differed markedly from the enjoyable ‘adventure’ Professor Wood claimed for the first raid.

Tench wrote; ‘I resolved to try once more to suprise the village beforementioned. And in order to deceive the natives, and prevent them from again frustrating our design by promulgating it, we feigned that our preparations were directed against Broken Bay, and that the man [Willamarin] who had wounded the governor [September 1790 at Manly] was the object of the punishment.

It was now determined, being full moon that our operations should be carried on in the night, both for the sake of secrecy, and for avoiding the extreme heat of the day’.

‘We feigned’ – who then was the target, who was Tench trying to kid?

The big switch – it is highly likely Tench’s ‘preparations’ to go after Willamarin were designed to dampen dissatisfaction within the ranks of the New South Wales Corps, particularly ‘certain officers‘ outraged by Phillip’s refusal to retaliate following his own spearing by Willeemarin. See: The Switch 1790 – Context – War With France 1793-1815

In June 1790 the first contingent of infantry troops – The New South Wales Corps – had arrived with the second fleet. But they came without Major Francis Grose their commanding office. The power vacuum was filled by Lieutenant John Macarthur a junior officer who can best be described as Australia’s Machiavelli.  See: John Macarthur – The Great Disrupter

‘Twenty five regiments of British infantry served in the colonies between 1790 and 17870…ensuring the literal survival of white settlement…and for the first half of their stay were probably more frequently in action than the garrison of any other colony besides that of southern Africa…war nasty and decidedly lacking in glory’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986.

It must be emphasised due to prolonged semi-starvation, other than Marine Captain Watkin Tench, the rank and file of the detachment assembled for both raids, in particular the second foray, would have been made up almost entirely of fresh troops – infantry-men of the New South Wales Corps – ‘who fought in one of the most prolonged frontier wars in the history of the British empire‘. Stanley. ibid.

EPILOGUE

‘A smokescreen of legal confusion and argument covered up a continuing pattern of killings at the frontiers of the Australian colonies’. Kercher. ibid.

There can be no ‘confusion’ when it comes to Governor Phillip’s orders. His ‘rules of engagement’ demonstrate clear intent and put no limit on brutality. They served as a template; ‘whenever a future breach of good conduct on their side shall render it necessary’..  

1790 – December: ‘Differing in no respect from the last’ it is from this second raid that Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples can, with laser accuracy, plot ‘a continuing pattern of killings’ that led to their near destruction. See: A Cracker Jack Opinion – No Sweat

ADDENDUM

‘New Holland is a blind, then, when we want to add to the military strength of India…I need not enlarge on the benefit of stationary a large body of troops in New South Wales…Should any disturbance happen in the East Indies’. Anon, Historical Records of New South Wales

Talk is currently centred on Australia’s position in the Indo-Pacific. The global context that drove Britain’s invasion of New Holland has come full circle. See: Britain + America + France + India + China + Peru + New Holland + New South Wales = Australia

Aside from Captain Cook, covered in primary 3rd grade, a vox pop of school-leavers working in local shops and supermarkets, reveal they know very little of Australia’s modern history, almost nothing of its context and nothing of Captain Arthur Phillip RN.

For the first two [2] it is simply don’t know don’t care.  But for the last Phillip who was prepared to go to any lengths for ‘King and Country’  that’s deliberate – that’s a cover-up.

The place to look is France 1783. The Treaty of Versailles, September 1783, brought a formal end to the American War of Independence 1775-1783.

France, to a lesser extent Spain, cost Britain her American colonies. Not just a few expendables thirteen (13) colonies – Connecticut, North and South Carolina, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, , New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia.

There were plans to use the [New South Wales] corps in expeditions against Panama, Peru and the Philippines, but nothing eventuated and the corps’ first experience of war came in January 1795 on the Hawkesbury River, north-west of Sydney’. Dr. Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986

Aside from strategic and trade considerations Britain’s invasion of New Holland was driven by humiliation.

Britain’s ‘pride and prejudice’ created a divided nation. White Australia’s ‘fair go’ mantra perpetuates the division.

It is time to shatter these ’empty words’ and address the smokescreen of legal confusion’ that lost the First Nations’ Peoples their sovereignty. See: A Cracker- Jack Opinion – No Sweat 

2019: After all Brexit is about British sovereignty.

 

 

JOHN M’ENTIRE – DEATH OF A SURE THING

Tuesday, February 14th, 2017

‘Phillip was authorised to see to the defence of the colony’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen & Unwin, 1995

1790 – December, Sydney: By December 1790 Governor Captain Arthur Phillip RN knew ‘certain officers’ of the newly arrived New South Wales Corps (June 1790) – led by Lieutenant John Macarthur an ambitious junior officer – were circling the tents.

In Phillip’s judgement the Pitt Administration in far off England was in danger of losing New South Wales ( Australia) gateway to India,  Asia and Spanish South American treasure colonies.

The threat however did not come from the First Nations’ People. The previous year 1789, 50% of local Eora Aborigines had contracted smallpox and were dead. The survivors were struggling to regroup. See: A Lethal Weapon Smallpox – Boston 1775 – Sydney 1789

Governor Phillip knew a serious threat to King and Country came from within the ranks of the military. But isolated in the midst of a hostile soldiery without naval support he had but one option in his armoury – diversion, and one (1) sure arrow, the ‘hated’ convict John M’Entire.  Missing in Action HMS Sirius & HMS Supply .

1790 – 9 December, Botany Bay: ‘On the 9th of the month, a serjeant of marines, with three convicts, among whom was M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the person of whom Bannelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred) went out on a [kangaroo] shooting party’. Marine Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Governor Phillip was on his own with his back to wall. HMS Sirius had been wrecked off Norfolk Island in March 1790 and her crew one hundred and sixty (160) were now stranded on the island

A month later April 1790, to save the starving settlement, HMS Supply sailed to Batavia, present-day Jakarta. Her captain Lieutenant Henry Ball RN was to buy urgently needed food and medicines and charter a Dutch ship to bring them to Sydney

Phillip, from intelligence gathered from Bennalong during his five (5) months held captive within British lines, hatched a plot he believed had every chance of success of changing the existing dangerous dynamic. See: Kidnapped – Manly – What’s in a Name

A practised strategist, but ailing following his own spearing in September 1790, Phillip had to box clever. He knew local Aborigines viewed John McIntyre, his personal game-keeper, with ‘hated and dread’. See: Manly Location, Location, Location

McIntyre with few friends in the white camp could be eliminated with little fear of back-lash from that quarter. An excellent ‘marksman’ he was the perfect patsy. See: April Fool’s Day – The Hulks Act 1776

What enabled Governor Phillip take such drastic action?  Legislation, the Hulks Act of 1776, deemed convicted criminals reprieved death on condition of ‘transportation out of the realm…their service is for the state’.

‘In determining the daily ration no distinction was drawn between the marines and the convicts except in respect of alcoholic liquors …the standard adopted was that of the troops serving in the West Indies’. Wilfrid Oldham, Britain’s Convicts to the Colonies, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1990

All First Fleet males – marines and convicts ‘fed as troops serving…in the West Indies’ were combatants; their service was for the state.

Phillip’s disavowal; ‘in this business of M’Entire I am fully persuaded that they [Aborigines] were unprovoked’ does not hold water. McIntyre as both convict and combatant was over qualified and Bennalong’s ‘dread and hatred’ is strong evidence McIntyre’s inclusion in the ‘shooting party’ was designed to provoke.

Watkin Tench’s ‘First Four Years’ informs this narrative unless attributed otherwise.

1790 – 9 December, Sydney:  McIntyre with two (2) other armed convicts, accompanied by a senior NCO, set off from Sydney at dawn on the 9th of December to walk a well-trodden path to Botany Bay. They intended to sleep overnight in a recently ‘erected small hut formed of boughs’.

1790 – 10 December, Botany Bay: ‘About one o’clock, the sergeant was awakened by a rustling noise in the bushes…Indians…one [Pemulway]…launched his spear at M’Entire, and lodged it in his left side…the wounded man immediately drew back and joining his party, cried, ‘I am a dead man’.

1790 – 11 December, Sydney: The wounded convict ‘expressed a longing desire not to be left to expire in the woods’ and the group carried him back to Sydney.

1790 – 12 December, Sydney: ‘To gain knowledge of their [Aborigines’] treatment of similar wounds, one of the surgeons made signs of extracting the spear; but this they violently opposed, and said, if it were done, death would instantly follow’.

William Balmain the fleet’s senior surgeon rejected their advise; ‘the extraction was…judged practicable and was accordingly performed’.  Its removal however did McIntyre no favours. Death did not come quickly he died on 21 January 1791.

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Headquarters: ‘The governor was at Rose Hill when this accident happened. On the day after he returned to Sydney… I [Tench] received a direction to attend the governor at head quarters immediately.

His Excellency pitched upon me ready to march tomorrow morning at daylight to execute the command…put ten [10] to death…bring in the heads of the slain…bring away two [2] prisoners…I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners…in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’.

 COLLECTIVE PUNISHMENT

Pemulway’s assault on McIntyre was a targeted attack by a known assailant – ‘put ten to death’ – indiscriminate retribution – punished both innocent and guilty.

Collective punishment: Governor Phillip’s savage General Orders put no limit on brutality and stunned Tench; ‘here the governor stopped and address[ed] himself to me’. See: The Switch – 1790 – CONTEXT – War With France 1793-1815

 ‘I begged to offer for consideration...instead of destroying ten [10] persons the capture of six [6] a part might be set aside for retaliation; and the rest, at a proper time, liberated, after having seen the fate of their comrades…this scheme his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding “if six [6] cannot be taken let this number be shot”. See: Terror – Arthur’s Algorithm – ‘instil universal terror’Open Sesame

CATCH – KILL – BEHEAD

‘The bloody raw power of decapitation…the eternal tension between drama and control…lies at the heart of the death penalty’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta Books, London 2015

Tench assembled a detachment of fifty (50) troops; ‘consisting of two [2] captains, two [2] subalterns, and forty [40] privates, with a proper number of non-commissioned officers, from the garrison’.

1790 – 14 December, Sydney: At four o’clock on the morning of the 14th...led by myself [Tench] we marched…by nine o’clock this terrific procession reached the peninsula, at the the head of Botany Bay’.

For Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples the make-up of this detachment is of utmost importance.

‘The Marines, members of the Royal Navy …prey to starvation, lethargy and despair remained in New South Wales only as long as they had to and from 1790 Australia was to be garrisoned by the army’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia, 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986

Dr Stanley’s picture of starving lethargic despairing marines, England’s Robinson Cruscos marooned and left to starve, align with Tench’s assessment of his marines; ‘the misery and horror of our situation cannot be imparted even by those who have suffered under it’.

See: Abandoned and Left to Starve @ Sydney Cove – January 1788 to June 1790

‘The insufficiency of our ration soon diminished our execution of labour. Both soldiers and convicts pleaded such loss of strength, as to find themselves unable to perform their accustomed tasks’.

It is safe therefore to assert the bulk of ‘forty privates’ in this ‘terrific procession’ were infantry-men of the New South Wales Corps recently arrived (June 1790) with a second fleet ‘Britain’s Grim Armada’. See: Dancing with Slavers – Britain’s Grim Armada- The Dead and the Living Dead

1790 – 14 December, Botany Bay: Soldiers heavily laden; ‘with three days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners…hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’ thrashed about, sweating and swearing as magpies swooped and black cockatoos screeched overhead.

‘After having walked in various directions until four o’clock, without seeing a native, we halted for the night’.

1790 – 15 December, Botany : At first light next morning they spotted their quarry; ‘five Indians on the beach…before we came near enough to effect our purpose [they] ran off’.

But sloppy map-reading had led the detachment astray; ‘instead of finding ourselves on the south-west arm, we came suddenly upon the sea shore, at the head of the peninsula, about midway between the two arms’.

Another stifling frustrating day spent in a muddy quagmire was followed by a; ‘night of restless inquietude, where weariness is denied repose by swarms of musquitoes and sand-flies, which bite and sting the traveller, without measure or intermission’.

1790 – 16 December, Sydney: Tench with provisions low and his troops exhausted abandoned the mission.

‘We bent our steps homeward, and after wading breast-high through two arms of the sea [Cook’s River] as broad as the Thames at Westminster, were glad to find ourselves at Sydney between one and two o’clock in the afternoon’.

1790 – 17 December, Sydney: The detachment straggled into camp hot thirsty, stinking uniforms stiff with salt and mud, only to find everything had changed.

At first light that very morning Waaksamheyd the 300 ton Dutch brig Lieutenant Ball of HMS Supply had chartered at Jakarta in July 1790  arrived from Batavia crammed with tons of food and medicines.

Tench reported to Governor Phillip; ‘Our expedition [had] totally failed’ there were no ‘heads in bags’ no ‘prisoners to execute in the most public and exemplary manner’.

Surely a win-win for Governor Phillip, he had asserted his authority at no cost; that should have been the end of it – but no.

‘Our first expedition having so totally failed, the governor resolved to try the fate of a second; and the ‘painful pre-eminence’ again devolved on me’.

Despite Waakssamheyd with her bounty, more probably because of her presence, Phillip ordered a second assault on the Bidjigal of Botany Bay.

Waaksamheyd was received with rapture but wily Governor Phillip smelt danger. Waaksamheyd was ripe for seizure and might facilitate a military insurrection. Even more than food she brought hope; of seizure and escape. Indeed for some escape and freedom was realised. See: The Great Escape – The Botany Bay Escapees

Deter Smidt, Waaksamheyd’s Dutch master assisted eleven (11) to escape – nine (9) convicts, Emanuel a baby and three (3) year old Charlotte, escaped in Governor Phillip’s own cutter and, in an epic sea-saga, rowed to Coupang, West Timor.  See: Pandora’s Box – The Bounty Mutineers and the Botany Bay Escapees 

The surviving ‘Botany Bay escapees’, as they became known in a high-profile court case, ended up in the Old Bailey where, years earlier their story had begun. See: Boswell Goes Into Bat for the Botany Bay Escapees

1790 – 21 December, Botany Bay: Meantime Phillip had ordered a a second raid; ‘the orders which I [Tench] was commanded to act differing in no respect from the last.

If six [6] cannot be taken let this number be shot…bring away two [2] prisoners…I [Phillip] am resolved to execute…in the most public and exemplary manner’.

1790 – 22 December, Sydney: ‘A little before sun-set on the evening of the 22d, we marched. Lieutenant Abbot, and ensign Prentice of the New South Wales corps, three [3] serjeants, three [3] corporals, and thirty [30] privates completed the detachment [with] ropes, hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’.

This time Tench went about the ‘business’ very differently. The second raid was a night raid.

‘In order to deceive the natives, and prevent them from again frustrating our design……it was now also determined, being full moon, that our operations should be carried on in the night, both for the sake of secrecy, and for avoiding the extreme heat of the day’.

1790 – 23 December, Botany Bay: The search to catch, kill and behead Aborigines began at dawn. Now as before seasonal king ‘Christmas’ tides surged in turning firm ground into muddy swampland.

Some soldiers weighed down by their heavy scarlet woollen uniforms nearly drowned when sucked into what Tench described ‘a rotten spongy…Serbian bog’.

Guns jammed with mud, their once sodden clothes now dry and stiff, the troops passed yet another night of ‘restless inquietude’.

1790 –  Christmas Eve, Sydney: ‘Our final effort was made at half past one o’clock  next morning…ending in disappointment and vexation. At nine o’clock we returned to Sydney to report our fruitless peregrination‘.

‘Disappointment’ yes ‘fruitless’ no.

Again it is Tench, caught in the eye of the storm, who tells us so.

1790 – 28 December, Sydney: ‘But if we could not retaliate on the murderer of M’Entire, we found no difficulty in punishing offences committed within our own observation.

Two natives robbing the potatoe [sic] garden…a party of soldiers dispatched…the[ir] ardour transported them so far, that, instead of capturing the offenders, they fired in among them…[one] Ba-g-ai…was dead’.

EPILOGUE

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries…These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

2019: The First Nations’ Peoples with laser accuracy can pinpoint their near annihilation to Governor Phillip’s absolute loyalty to King and Country.

In December 1790 there was one (1) player, Marine Lieutenant William Dawes who saw clearly the inevitable ‘future’ consequences of Governor Phillip’s General Orders.

Dawes initially refused to go on the raid of the 14th of December but, after consulting Reverend Richard Johnson the ‘First Fleet’ Chaplain, complied.

On returning to Sydney on the 17th Dawes addressed his objections, via Adjutant Lowe, to Governor Phillip in writing. He expressed regret for obeying in the first instance and stated he would not in future comply if given a similar order. See: Lieutenant William Dawes – ‘The Eternal Flame’& ‘Universal Terror’

Dawes, an officer with combat experience in the American War of Independence (1775-1783) did not consider either raid a ‘charade’ nor would he have put his life on the life for; ‘a melodramatic show of strength’.

Yet currently Governor Phillip’s General Orders of December 1790 have been written off as ‘charade – a melodramatic show of force’. While a recent high-profile publication omits all mention of a second raid.

ADDENDUM

1816 – April, Appin: Australia’s first officially designated ‘massacre’ met the criteria – fourteen (14) or more dead Aborigines in one (1) action – occurred in Sydney’s near south-west, Broughton Gorge at Appin, in April 1816.

There can be no  doubt Tench’s treacherous ‘night raid’ – 22nd December 1790 – set the precedent for ‘future’ confrontations between the invaders and the invaded.

Governor Lachlan Macquarie’s orders issued 10 April 1816 echo almost precisely Governor Phillip’s orders.

In daylight a number of Dharawal men were shot. ‘To instil terror’ as ordered their bodies were strung up in the trees. Two (2) named warriors were beheaded.

During the night of the 15th April 1816 Captain Wallis moved his troops onto the home camp at; ‘1 am [16th] my men held a child cry’. Some women were shot dead on the spot. While others, elders and mothers with their children were rounded up and driven to their death over Broughton Gorge.  See: Dark Matter, Lieutenant Mc Mafia Macarthur, The New South Wales Corps &  Governor Phillip, Major Grose, Captain Paterson, Governors Hunter, King, Bligh, Macquarie 

The heads of the Dharawal men from the initial raid were taken to Sydney and boiled down. The skulls were sent to the Anatomy Department at Edinburgh University from where they have recently been repatriated.