Posts Tagged ‘Aborigines’

THE SWITCH 1790 – CONTEXT GLOBAL WAR 1775 – 1815

Tuesday, April 9th, 2019

‘For a brief moment there was hope…within a matter of years violence had broken out on both sides and Phillip would now instruct raiding parties to bring back the severed heads of warriors. The birth of Australia was meant to be so different…it need not have been this way’. Stan Grant, Talking to My Country, Text Publishing, 2017

Why is Australia ‘this way’ a divided nation? See: G is for Genocide- Colonial Breeding

‘Phillip…had instructions to deal with the ‘natives’ with ‘amity and kindness’. Professor Larissa Behrendt, The Honest History Book, – Invasion or Settlement, NewSouth Press, 2017   

What had gone so wrong with the ‘deal’? 

‘Within a generation the heads of Aborigines were shipped to Britain in glass cases to be studied as relics of a doomed race’. Grant. ibid.

What flipped the switch from ‘amity and kindness’ to ‘nasty’ creeping frontier wars that by 1838 had brought about the near destruction of Australia’s First Nations?

London – 1838:  ‘On the subject of the Aborigines of New Holland...It is impossible to contemplate the condition or the prospects of that unfortunate race without the deepest commiseration. Still it is impossible that the government should forget that the original aggression was ours’. Select Committee of the British Parliament, Lord John Russell to [Governor] Sir George Gipps, 21 December, 1838. Historical Records of New South Wales Vol.1

First Nations’ authors, Stan Grant and Larissa Behrendt, hone in on a critical pinch-point that occurred in the first decade of Britain’s ‘original aggression’.

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, A History of the Law in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Sydney 1995

(more…)

SWORD AND WORD BOTH ARE MIGHTY – GOVERNOR ARTHUR PHILLIP’S MILITARY CAMPAIGN FOR KING AND COUNTRY

Wednesday, July 11th, 2018

‘The cultural arrogance of the British was evident even before the First Fleet sailed.

There was no recognition that the Aborigines had their own notion of right, that from their point of view they were entitled to defend themselves from invasion’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, A History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

**********

1790 – April: ‘per week without distinction…to every child of more than eighteen (18) months old and to every grown person two [2] pounds of pork, two and a half [2 ½] pounds of flour, two [2] pounds of rice, or a quart of pease.

The pork and rice we brought with us from England; the pork had been salted between three and four years, and every grain of rice was a moving body, from the inhabitants lodged within it’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. L.F. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1961

************

‘On the 9th of the month [December 1790], a serjeant of marines, with three [3] convicts, among whom was M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the person of whom Baneelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred) went out on a shooting party’. Tench. ibid.

***********

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Headquarters: ‘Put to death ten…bring in the heads of the slain…bring in two prisoners.I am resolved to execute the prisoners…in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’. Governor Phillip, General Orders to Captain Tench, cited Tench. ibid

**********

‘Indiscriminate and disproportionate’ Governor Phillip’s directive, put no limit on barbarity. He made it in response to the warrior Pemulwuy’s wounding of John  McIntyre who was one (1) of three (3) ‘First Fleet’ convict marksmen licensed to carry firearms.

‘But in this business of M’Entire I [Phillip] am fully persuaded that they [Aborigines] were unprovoked’, cited Tench.

Yet Tench tells us Phillip had detailed knowledge of McIntyre his own game-keeper. A year earlier, in December 1789 Bennalong, on Governor Phillip’s orders, had been kidnapped from Manly Beach.

He was held captive within British lines until he escaped in May of 1790.See: Kidnapped – Manly What’s In A Name

There can be no doubt Bennalong was the source of Phillip’s ‘dread and hatred’ intelligence .

Why ‘they’ when Pemulway identified by the ‘blemish in his left eye’, was the single known assailant.

The ‘but’ however refers to Phillip’s ,‘own spearing’ by Wileemarrin, ‘a native from Broken Bay’ that had taken place three (3) months previously – September 1790. See: Manly, Location Location Location

(more…)

TITANIC: HMS GUARDIAN – AUSTRALIA’S TITANIC

Wednesday, June 6th, 2018

‘The poor aborigines were quickly reduced to a state of starvation, and it is believed that many of them actually perished for want of food during the first few months of [Britain’s ] the occupation of their country’. Samuel Bennett, Australian Discovery and Colonisation, Vol 1 – 1800, facsimile ed. 1981

Documentary evidence supports Governor Phillip’s expectation logistical support would reach him soon after the ‘First Fleet’ naval expeditionary force had reached Botany Bay. See:  On the Rocks

None came. ‘Every morning from day-light until the sun  sank’ Marine Captain Tench wrot ‘did we sweep the horizon in the hope of seeing a sail’.   

The direst consequences of Britain’s callous abandonment of her country-men fell on the Aborigines of the Sydney area. They ‘were quickly reduced to a state of starvation’. See: Abandoned and Left to Starve Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790

1788 – July, Sydney:  ‘They [Aborigines] are now much distressed for food, few fish are caught & I am told that many of them appear on the Beach where the Boats  go to haul the Seins [trawling nets], very weak & anxious to get the small fish, of which they make no account in the Summer nor can we give them much assistance as very few fish are now caught, & we have many sick’. Governor Arthur Phillip to Joseph Banks, 2 July 1788. Oxford Book of Australian Letters, ed. Brenda Niall, John Thompson, 1998   

1790

1790 – Sydney, I January: ‘We had been entirely cut off no communication whatever having passed with our native country since the 13th of May, 1787, the day of our departure from Portsmouth.

From the intelligence of our friends and connections…we had now been two years in the country and thirty-two months  in which long period no supplies had reached us from England. Famine besides was approaching with gigantic strides’. Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. L.F. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1961     

Britain’s abandonment of the Englishmen, women and children of the  ‘First Fleet’ amounted to treachery. See: Arthur Phillip – Hung Out to Dry

But what was devastating for the English was catastrophic for Australia’s First Peoples.See: Dead Aborigines Don’t Eat

(more…)

A PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS – THE ENGLISHMEN OF THE FIRST FLEET

Wednesday, April 4th, 2018

‘A very tasty pea and ham soup washed down with tea from the leaves of the local sarsaparilla vine. In fact being British the colonists drank so much of the stuff that sarsaparilla remains almost extinct in the area around Sydney’. Tony Robinson’s History of Australia, Penguin 2011.

1788 – 18 January, Botany Bay: HMS Supply, the first of eleven (11) vessels making up the ‘First Fleet’ with a complement of 1500 hungry souls, reached Botany Bay, in the island continent of New Holland, now Australia on 18th January 1788. Almost immediately Supply deployed her seine [trawling] nets.

‘No sooner were the fish out of the water than they [Aborigines] began to lay hold of them as if they had a right to them, or that they were their own; upon which the officer of the boat, I think very properly, restrained them giving, however, to each of them a part. They did not at first seem very well pleased with this mode of procedure, but on observing with what justice this fish was distributed they appeared content’. John White, Chief Medical Officer, First Fleet Journal

(more…)

A HATCHET JOB: HEADS OFF THE BIDJIGAL OF BOTANY BAY

Sunday, March 25th, 2018

‘In war the trophy head is a mark of supremacy and respect’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta, 2015

§

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Cove: ‘If practicable, to bring away two [2] natives as prisoners and to put to death ten [10]. That we were to cut off, and bring in the heads of the slain, for which purpose, hatchets and bags would be furnished’. Marine Captain Watkin, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhadinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Can we know what drove Governor Phillip’s ferocity? Yes we can – simmering rebellion centred on ‘certain  officers’ of the newly arrived New South Wales Corps (June 1790) one in particular Lieutenant John Macarthur.

‘The author of this publication [Captain Watkin Tench] received a direction to attend the governor [Arthur Phillip] at head quarters immediately.

I went, and his excellency informed me, that he had pitched upon me to execute the foregoing command…infuse universal terror…convince them of our superiority…we were to proceed to the north arm of the [Botany] bay…destroy all weapons of war: no hut was to be burned: that all women and children were to remain uninjured’.  

(more…)

SMALLPOX – A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON OF MASS DESTRUCTION – 1789

Wednesday, March 14th, 2018

‘The body of the [Aboriginal] woman showed that famine, superadded to disease, had occasioned her deathIt is true, that our surgeons had brought out variolous (smallpox) matter in bottles’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. L.F. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1961

Botany Bay – January 1788: At 2.15pm on 18 January 1788 HMS Supply, first of a large armed expeditionary force of eleven (11) ships, known in Britain and Australia as the ‘First Fleet’ with an overwhelmingly  male complement of 1500 souls (1300 men, 221 women) anchored in the entrance to Botany Bay, New Holland known now as Australia.

Governor Phillip estimated local Aboriginals numbered 1500. As the population had doubled ‘the main battle was about having enough to eat’. The Story of Australia, Don Watson 1984.

‘From time to time throughout history, peoples and governments around the world have used micro-organisms as efficient and cost-effective weapons of mass destruction’. Professor Dorothy H. Crawford, The Invisible Enemy, Edinburgh University Press, 2000

(more…)

REAR WINDOW & ‘THE BUSINESS OF WAR’ : 7 FEBRUARY 2018 – 7 FEBRUARY 1788

Wednesday, February 7th, 2018

1788 – 7 February, Port Jackson: ‘We have come today to take possession of this fifth great continental division of the earth on behalf of the British people. I do not doubt that this country will prove the most valuable acquisition Great Britain ever made. How grand a prospect which lies before this youthful nation’. Governor Arthur Phillip RN, Historical Records of New South Wales.

How ‘grand a prospect’ lay before this ancient land’s First Peoples?

1838 – 21 December, London: ‘You cannot overrate the solicitude of H. M. Government on the subject of the Aborigines of New Holland. It is impossible to contemplate the condition or the prospects of that unfortunate race without the deepest commiseration.  Still it is impossible that the government should forget that the original aggression was ours’. Lord John Russell to [Governor] Sir George Gipps, 21 December 1838, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1. Vol. XX

(more…)

‘TERROR’ – ARTHUR’S ALGORITHM – OPEN SESAME!

Wednesday, October 4th, 2017

‘The ability to shock bestows a kind of power’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta, London, 2014

***********

Sydney – 1790 – 13 December:   ; ‘Infuse universal terror…put ten [10] to death…cut off, and bring back the heads of the slain….two [2] prisoners I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners who may be brought in, in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’.  General Orders, Governor Arthur Phillip RN to Marine Captain Watkin Tench. Cited Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. L.F. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

***********

‘From 1788 there had been continuous disputation between the civil power represented by the autocratic uniformed naval governors and the military’. John McMahon, Not a Rum Rebellion but a Military Insurrection, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 92, 2006

*********

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

**********

  ‘And my [Phillip’s] fixed determination to repeat it, [General Orders] whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’.  Tench. op.cit.

***********

Œ

Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples can, with laser accuracy, plot their ‘future’ near annihilation – from Governor Phillip’s Orders of the 13th of December 1790.

From where lay the threat to Governor Phillip in December 1790? Certainly not with the Bidjigal of Botany Bay.

The previous year, April 1789, an outbreak of smallpox killed 50% of Sydney’s Aborigines leaving its pock-marked survivors struggling to regroup. See: Smallpox – A Lethal Weapon Boston 1775, Sydney 1789 – Robert Ross and David Collins

‘For the Sydney people to lose 50% or more of their military capability in a few weeks was a crushing blow’. Stephen Gapps, The Sydney Wars, NewSouth Books, 2018

If not the Bidjigal who was Phillip’s ‘enemy’? See: A Clash of Giants – Arthur Phillip & John Macarthur – The Great Pretender

§§

1790  – Botany Bay, December 9:  ‘On the 9th of the month [December] a sergeant of marines, with three convicts…went out on a shooting party…to the north arm of Botany Bay…among them M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the convict of whom Bannelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred)’. Tench. ibid. See: Kidnapped – Manly What’s in a Name

10 December: At 1 am; ‘the serjeant was awakened by a rustling noise in the bushes’. 

An Aboriginal warrior identified as Pemulwuy speared the ‘hated’ Mc Intyre.

12 December, Sydney: Mc Intyre ‘expressed a longing desire not to be left to expire in the woods’. The shooting party reached Sydney in the early hours of 12 December 1790 with the wounded man and the spear in place.

13 December:‘I [Tench] received a direction to attend the governor at head quarters immediately’ where Governor Phillip issued Tench orders to march on the Bidjigal and ‘instil universal terror’.

§

‘The warrior skilled at stirring the enemy proffers the bait’. Sun-Tzu, The Art of War, Penguin Books, 2009 

Mc Intyre was (1) of three (3) convicts licensed to carry firearms. He was Governor Phillip’s own game-keeper and it was widely known local Aborigines hated Mc Intyre yet Governor Phillip claimed the attack  was ‘unprovoked’.

 London – 1787, April 25: ‘You [Arthur Phillip] are to endeavour by every means possible to open an intercourse with the natives…enjoining all our subject to live in amity and kindness with them. And if any of our subjects shall wantonly destroy them or give them an unnecessary  interruption in the exercise of their several occupations , it is our will and pleasure that you do cause such offenders to be brought to punishment according to the degree of the offence’.At St. James Palace 25 April 1787, King George 111 to Captain-General, Governor-in-Chief of Our territory New South Wales. Frank Murcott Bladen, Historical Records of New South Wales, Vols. 1,2

See: Mc Intyre – Death of a Sure Thing

Governor Phillip in accord with his ‘Draught of Instructions’ was justified in sacrificing Mc Intyre whose conduct had caused ‘the natives’ to view him with ‘dread and hatred’. See:  April Fool’s Day – The Hulks Act of 1776

‘The convicts being servants of the Crown till the time for which they are sentenced is expired, their… labour [service] is to be for the public’. Governor Phillip to Phillip Gidley King,  12 February 1788, cited Dr. John Cobley, Sydney Cove 1788.

Whereas; ‘put ten [10] to death’ destroying both innocent and guilty, according to the ‘rules and disciplines of war’, then as now indiscriminate punishment was unlawful.

On receiving these orders Tench registered shock; ‘here the governor stopped, and addressed himself to me said, if I could propose any alternation of the orders under which I was to act’.

Tench proposed; ‘capture six [6]…a part should be set aside for retaliation; and the rest, at a proper time, liberated, after seeing the fate of their comrades. This scheme, his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding, if six [6] cannot be taken, let this number [6] be shot’.

13 December: Tench ordered his troops; ‘be ready to go out tomorrow morning at daylight [14th] with three [3] days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners with and hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’.  See: A Hatchet Job – Heads Off The Bidjigal of Botany Bay

The detachment consisted of fifty (50) men – two (2) officers with the regulation ratio of non-commissioned to forty (40) private soldiers. For the future of Australia’s First Peoples the make-up of this detachment is of utmost importance.

THE BACK STORY

‘The main battle was about having enough to eat’. Don Watson, Story of Australia, 1984

Sydney Cove: By December 1790 ‘Phillip’s people’ had been marooned since 1788. Completely isolated from the outside world; ‘the misery and horror our situation’ Tench wrote ‘cannot be imparted even by those  who have suffered under it’.

The marines of the ‘troubled’ Sydney garrison suffered profound lethargy from excruciating uncertainty and prolonged semi-starvation. They were incapable of sustained effort.

Most could barely stand let alone undertake a three (3) days march over a rough track in full kit under a blazing December sun. See: Abandoned and Left To Starve at Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790.

Botany  Bay -December:  So it is certain, when the section moved out for Botany Bay on the 14th of December 1790, the majority of its forty (40) rank and file would have been foot soldiers. Infantrymen of the New South Wales Corps who, in June 1790, arrived from England to relieve the beleaguered garrison marines. See: Dark Matter

§

Sydney – 17 December: Tench’s detachment returned to  Sydney on the 17th of December without heads or prisoners to execute.

21 December: Phillip ordered a second raid.  ‘The orders which I [Tench] was commanded to act differing in no respect from the last’. Phillip’s ordersrules of engagement – ‘ were specific’….convince them of our superiority’.

Twenty-five regiments of British infantry…participated in the great struggle at the heart of the European conquest of this continent’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

There is supporting evidence Governor Phillip’s General Orders of December 1790 ‘instil universal terror’ were never countermanded. Extant, Phillip’s orders served as a template from 1788 to 1870. They went onto govern all ‘future’ confrontations between Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples and ‘twenty-five regiments of British infantry’.

§

‘There are two kinds of error; those of commission, doing something that should not be done, and those of omission, not doing something that should be done, the latter are much more serious than the former’. Kenneth Hoper and William Hopper, The Puritan Gift, Forward, Russell Lincoln Ackoff, I.B. Tauris, 2009.

1792 -December: Governor Phillip departed Sydney for home in mid December 1792. Tragically for the First Australians London failed to commission a successor. Captain John Hunter RN, the second naval governor, would not reach Sydney until September 1795.

‘For the length of the interregnum [1792-1795] the British government was greatly at fault’. J.J. Achmuty, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Governor John Hunter.

‘Omission’ by default the immense power vested in Captain Arthur Phillip as Naval Governor of New South Wales, said to be unique in Britain’s long history of empire building, devolved to the military.

On Phillip’s departure; ‘the traffic in spirits was commenced by the officers [New South Wales Corps] and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Historical Records of Australia.

§

1792 – Sydney, 13 December: The day following Phillip’s departure Major Francis Grose, the Corps’ commanding officer, took absolute military control of the infant colony.

Grose dismissed all civil magistrates appointed by Governor Phillip in accord with the official Letters Patent.

Carrying wounds from the American War of Independence 1775-1783, Grose proved a lackadaisical commander. Almost immediately he made a critical appointment.

He appointed Lieutenant John Macarthur ‘a central figure in the military mafia’ the regimental paymaster.

‘The control of labour was largely vested in his [Grose’s] new regimental pay-master, Lieutenant John Macarthur – a central figure in the military mafia which quickly established itself as Australia’s first governing and property-owing elite’. Arthur Phillip, Gentleman, Scholar and Seaman, Dr. Nigel Rigby, Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Dr. Pieter Van der Merwe, British National Maritime Museum, Prof. Emeritius History, Queen Mary, University of London, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London, 2018

For the next twenty-five (25) years a ‘frontier war, nasty and decidedly lacking in glory‘ was centred on the Aboriginal’s river lands, the Deerrubin – Hawkesbury, and Macarthur ‘country’ – along the Nepean and Grose River systems.

§

England  -1794: Major Grose returned to England at the end of 1794. He was succeeded by Captain William Paterson, yet another physically and emotionally damaged ‘three bottles a day’ veteran of America’s Revolutionary War.

Hawkesbury River:  By then – 1794 – over four hundred (400) ex-convict settlers had fenced off their allocated land grants and were farming Dharug land. See: Cape York to South Cape – Your Land is My Land

‘Thirty miles along the banks on both sides of the [Hawkesbury] River it has been estimated that between 1794 and 1800 at least twenty-six [26] Whites and up to two hundred [200] Aborigines were killed’. Stanley. ibid.

Hawkesbury – 1795:  In June 1795 while Governor Hunter was still on the high seas Paterson; ‘sent a detachment of two [2] subalterns and sixty [60] privates of the New South Wales [Corps] to the river…to destroy as many as they could…as well to drive the natives to a distance, as for the protections of the settlers.

‘It gives me concern’ Paterson wrote in dispatches ‘to have been forced to destroy any of these people, particularly as I have no doubt of their having been cruelly treated by some of the settlers who went out there’. Captain William Paterson to Right Hon. Henry Dundas, 15 June 1795, Historical Records of Australia. See: A Worm Hole – Richard Atkins Diary

The troops Paterson deployed to the Hawkesbury saw limited skirmishes escalate to ‘open warfare’ accelerating destruction of the Dharug whose spears, guts, and guile could not match for the increased fire-power.

Sydney – 1795, September: Governor John Hunter RN reached Sydney in late September 1795. Despite spirited antagonism directed at him by Lieutenant Macarthur, Hunter managed to restore what passed for ‘English civil law’ in New South Wales.

§

Sydney – 1799: Four (4) years later, March 1799, Hunter ordered ‘five [5] European] men changed with the murder of two [2] native boys’. Lieutenant Neil MacKellar, in command at the Hawkesbury from 1797 to 1799, was called to give evidence.

‘Under questioning he stated that the orders issued [1795] for the destruction of Aboriginals whenever encountered, after they had committed outrages, had not been countermanded during his command at the Hawkesbury nor to his knowledge since’. Neill Mackellar, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Brigadier M. Austin

Whitehall – 1799:  While the trial of the five (5) men was in progress in Sydney Hunter was informed of his recall to England. The reasons given were twofold.

Firstly because he had failed to stop the importation of ‘fiery Indian rum’ from Bengal. See: Down the Rabbit Hole with Hunter

‘The traffic in spirits was commenced by the [infantry] officers and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Historical Records. ibid.

Secondly Captain John Hunter, hero of the ‘First Fleet’ was disgusted with the military thugs of the New South Wales ‘Rum’ Corps.  See: Proximity Not Distance Drove Britain’s Invasion of New Holland.

Teetotaller John Macarthur was the prime mover in the importation of rum from Bengal. Rum bought cheaply, sold at an exorbitant mark-up, generated immense profits for ‘certain officers’ of the ‘Rum’ Corps and their cronies.

When the ex-cons who drank the rum went broke, officers of the ‘military mafia’ were on hand to buy them up and turf them out.

§

‘From 1788 there had been continuous disputation between the civil power represented by the autocratic uniformed naval governors and the military’. John McMahon, Not a Rum Rebellion but a Military Insurrection, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 92, 2006

Lieutenant John Macarthur was the common denominator in the recall to London of Governor Phillip’s immediate successors, the naval Governors, Captain John Hunter, Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King and Captain William ‘Bounty’ Bligh.

1800 – 1806:  Governor Hunter was replaced by Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King RN who, like Hunter, was a ‘First Fleeter’ returning ‘home’ to Australia. See: The Irish & the English King in Australia.

1806 – August: Governor William Bligh RN arrived in Sydney with orders for Governor King’s recall to England. See: Down The Rabbit Hole with King

And when ‘Bounty’ Bligh made strenuous effort to stem the tsunami of grog he too found himself under vicious attack from John Macarthur.

1808 – Sydney – 26 January: On the 20th anniversary of Captain Arthur Phillip’s raising the Union Jack in Sydney Cove Governor Bligh was seized and imprisoned by officers of the New South Wales Corps. See: Australia Day Rebellion – Australia Day 1808

EPILOGUE

1790:  ‘The natives will be made severe examples of whenever any man is wounded by them….and my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’. Governor Phillip, cited Tench. ibid

Sydney – 22 December, 1790: When on the 22nd of December1790 Governor Phillip’s General Orders;‘differing in no respect from the last‘ on 13th December 1790 they triggered an algorithm of ‘terror’ that ‘lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth century’. Kercher. ibid.

A map detailing ‘the better documented’ massacres of ‘dissenting Aboriginal’ Australians from the 1790s – to the 1920s was published in 2017

§

Appin – April 1816: The first of these acknowledged to meet the criteria, fourteen (14) ‘dissenting Aboriginals’ known to be killed in one (1) action, occurred on Dhrawal land – at Broughton Pass, ‘Macarthur country’, in April 1816.

Governor Lachlan Macquarie’s ‘rules of engagement’ issued to Captain Wallis -10 April 1816 – echo those of Governor Arthur Phillip’s General Orders to Marine Watkin Captain Tench – December 13th and 22nd of December 1790.

‘two prisoners I [Phillip] am resolved to execute…in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’.

As with Phillip 1790 [Macquarie’s] ‘rules of engagement were specific,  if grown up men [killed they] to be hanged up on Trees in Conspicuous Situations to Strike Survivors with the greater terror. John Connor, The Australian Frontier Wars 1788-1838, UNSW Press, 2002

1816 -April: Captain Wallis’s plan of attack was eerily similar to those of Tench’s approach in the second raid of the 22nd of December 1790 which were markedly different from those of Watkin Tench planned for the day-light raid of the14th of December 1790.

‘A little before sun-set on the evening of the 22d. we marched…In order to deceive the natives, and prevent them from again frustrating our design by promulgating it, we feigned that our preparations were directed against Broken Bay; and that the man who had wounded the governor [Willeemarin] was the object of punishment.

It was now also determined being full moon, that our operations should be carried on in the night, both for the sake of secrecy and for avoiding the extreme of the day’. Tench.ibid

§

1816 – Appin: ‘The only way British troops could get close to Aboriginal groups was to look for their campfires at night and surprise them in their sleep.  In these circumstances it was very difficult for soldiers to differentiate between, women and children’.

And the same cant; ‘you will use every possible precaution to save the lives of the Native Women and Children’. John Connor. ibid.

Like Tench ‘Wallis recognised the impossibility of carrying out the Governor’s orders to surrender. The only way to get close to them was in a pre-dawn raid in which the soldiers were unable to distinguish men from women and children.

§

[Wallis] ordered Lieutenant Parker to hand the corpses of Cannabaygal and Dunell on a prominent hill near Lachlan Vale’. Connor, cited The First Frontier, The Occupation of the Sydney Region 1788 to 1816, Peter Turbett, Rosenberg Publishing, 2011 

‘Some time later the skulls of Cannabaygal, Dunell and an unnamed woman were cut from their bodies…and ended up in the Anatomy Department of the University of Edinburgh’. Dr. Michael Pickering, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Program and Repatriation Program. National Museum of Australia cited Turbett. ibid.

Peter Turbett goes on to say at the time of publishing First Frontier  (2011) the skulls of three (3) Aborigines murdered at Appin had been brought home to Australia.

See: Reel 6045 National Archives, St. Marys, Western Sydney.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

 

 

 

 

LIEUTENANT WILLIAM DAWES – THE ‘ETERNAL FLAME’ & THE SHOCK OF THE NEW SOUTH WALES CORPS

Wednesday, September 6th, 2017

‘He [Dawes] was the scholar of the [First Fleet] expedition, man of letters and man of science, explorer, mapmaker, student of language of anthropology, teacher and philanthropist’. Professor G.A. Wood, Lieutenant William Dawes and Captain Watkin Tench, Royal Australian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 19, Part 1, 1924

************

While Indigenous Australia knows of Marine Lieutenant William Dawes non-indigenous Australia ‘and from all the lands on earth we come’ know almost nothing of Dawes or of the ‘eternal flame’ and the remarkable role it played in the invasion of New Holland and the dispossession of its First Peoples?

Harrison H-4 Chronometer

‘English clockmaker John Harrison, a mechanical genius who pioneered the science of portable precision timekeeping…invented a clock that would carry the true time from the home port, like an eternal flame, to any remote corner of the world’. Dava Sobel, Longitude, Fourth Estate, 1998

It fetched up at one particular ‘remote corner of the world’  aboard HMS Supply one (1) of  eleven (11) ‘First Fleet’ ships.

Warranne – Sydney Cove: 26 January 1788:  K I – a faithful replica of John  Harrison’s  H-4 a ‘sea-going pocket watch’, was given into Dawe’s care by Britain’s Astronomer Royal Rev. Nevil Maskelyne

‘When leaving Botany Bay [for Sydney Cove 25 January 1788] Phillip noticed [La Perouse with] two French ships in the  offing….there would seem to be “some justification for the saying that England won Australia by six days”. Edward Jenks, History of the Australian Colonies, cited H.E. Egerton, A short History of British Colonial Policy, Methuen, London 1928

1788 – Norfolk Island, 14 February:  Three (3) weeks later K-1 left Sydney in HMS Supply to occupy Norfolk Island, in order to prevent La Perouse, ‘hanging around at Botany Bay’ claiming it for France.

1788 – Africa,  2 October on Sirius sailed to Cape Town for food.

1789 – Sydney, 8 May Sirius returned with 127,000 lbs. of flour; ‘after an absence of 219 days of which lay in Table Bay Cape of Good Hope, so that, although during the voyage we had fairly gone around the world, we had only been 168 days in describing that circles…makes it [Port Jackson] an important Post should it ever be necessary to carry…war in those seas…Coast of Chile and Peru’. [John] Hunter, Journal Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island. ????? 

1790 – Norfolk Island, 6 March on Sirius to Norfolk Island with 50% of Sydney’s starving population.

1790 – 17 March: K-1 was removed from Sirius before she sank after striking a submerged reef off Norfolk Island.

1790 -Sydney,  6 April returned to Sydney on HMS Supply.

1790 – Jakarta, 17 April on Supply sailed to Batavia.

1790 – Sydney, 17 October arrived in Sydney on Supply from Jakarta where Lieutenant Ball had chartered a Dutch ship Waaksamheyd to bring tonnes of supplies to Sydney as soon as possible.

1790 – Sydney, 16 December Waaksamheyd arrived from Jakarta

Together ‘the man of science’ and the ‘pocket-watch’ that ‘wrested the world’s whereabouts from the stars’ can play a pivotal role in revealing the how ,why and wherefore of the ‘war nasty and decidedly lacking in glory’ Britain waged against Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples

‘The decision to colonise New South Wales cannot be isolated from the strategic imperatives of the world’s first global struggle, the Seven Years’ War (1757-1763). . Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia, Third ed. Cambridge University Press, 2008

(more…)

A TETHERED GOAT – JOHN McENTIRE- DECEMBER 1790

Wednesday, August 30th, 2017

Sydney – 1790 – January: ‘Since the 13th of May, 1787, the day of our departure from Portsmouthwe had been entirely cut off…from the intelligence of our friends and connections… no communications whatever having passed with our native country’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. L.F. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1961 

************

‘Since we first arrived  at this distant country [January 1788] all this while we have been as it were buried alive, never having the opportunity to hear from our friends…our hopes are now almost vanished’. Reverend Richard Johnson First Fleet Chaplain cited Jack Egan, Buried Alive, Eyewitness accounts of the making of a nation 1788-92, Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1999

*********

‘The other great change came [June 1790] in the arrival with the Second Fleet of the first companies of the New South Wales Corps’. Nigel Rigby, Peter van der Merwse, Glyn Williams. Pacific Explorations, Voyages of Discovery from Captain Cook’s Endeavour to the Beagle, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London, 2018

*********

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids had commenced by [14] December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, History of Law In Australia, Allen & Unwin, 1995

***********

‘A smokescreen of legal confusion and argument covered up a continuing pattern of killings at the frontiers of the Australian colonies’. Kercher, An Unruly Child. ibid.

Since the 13th of May, 1787, the day of our departure from Portsmouthwe had been entirely cut off…from the intelligence of our friends and connections…in which long period no supplies except for what had been procured for us at the Cape of Good Hope by the Sirius had reached us in [May 1789]’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. L.F. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1961 

(more…)