Posts Tagged ‘Aborigines’

THE SWITCH 1790 – CONTEXT – WAR WITH FRANCE 1793-1815

Tuesday, April 9th, 2019

‘For a brief moment there was hope…within a matter of years violence had broken out on both sides and Phillip would now instruct raiding parties to bring back the severed heads of warriors. The birth of Australia was meant to be so different…it need not have been this way’. Stan Grant, Talking to My Country, Text Publishing, 2017

2019: So why is Australia ‘this way’ a divided nation? A white first world dominating a third world defined by colour and hue and seen by the ‘entitled’ white world as a liability.  See: G is for Genocide- Colonial Breeding

‘Phillip…had instructions to deal with the ‘natives’ with ‘amity and kindness’. Professsor Larissa Behrendt, The Honest History Book, – Invasion or Settlement, NewSouth Press, 2017   

What went so wrong with the deal; ‘within a generation the heads of Aborigines were shipped to Britain in glass cases to be studied as relics of a doomed race’. Grant. ibid.

London: In 1838 a Select Committee of the British Parliament; ‘On the subject of the Aborigines of New Holland…It is impossible to contemplate the condition or the prospects of that unfortunate race without the deepest commiseration. Lord John Russell to [Governor] Sir George Gipps, 21 December, 1838. Historical Records of New South Wales Vol.1

So what flipped the switch from ‘amity and kindness’ to ‘nasty’ creeping frontier wars that by 1838 had brought about the near destruction of ‘that unfortunate race…the Aborigines of New Holland’?

Two (2) First Nations’ authors, Stan Grant and Larissa Behrendt, have honed in on a critical pinch-point that occurred in the first decade of Britain’s occupation of New Holland.

Although ‘amity kindness’ were the ‘weasel-words’ of their day, both Behrendt and Grant are satisfied Governor Phillip took the concept seriously. That was until December 1790 when Phillip’s absolute loyalty to ‘King and Country’ trumped ‘amity and kindness’.

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SWORD AND WORD BOTH ARE MIGHTY – GOVERNOR ARTHUR PHILLIP’S MILITARY CAMPAIGN FOR KING AND COUNTRY

Wednesday, July 11th, 2018

‘The cultural arrogance of the British was evident even before the First Fleet sailed. There was no recognition that the Aborigines had their own notion of right, that from their point of view they were entitled to defend themselves from invasion’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, A History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Headquarters:‘ Put to death ten…bring in the heads of the slain…bring in two prisoners…I am resolved to execute the prisoners…in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’. Governor Phillip, General Orders to Captain Tench, cited, Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1961

Phillip’s orders put no limit on barbarity. The reason Phillip gave for his ‘indiscriminate and disproportionate’ directive was the spearing of convict John M’Entyre by the warrior Pemulwuy that took place at Botany Bay in the early hours of 10 December 1790.

‘On the 9th of the month, a serjeant of marines, with three [3] convicts, among whom was M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the person of whom Baneelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred) went out on a shooting party’. Tench. ibid.

A year earlier, December 1789, Bennalong had been kidnapped and held captive within British lines until he escaped in May of 1790. Bennalong was the source of Phillip’s intelligence ‘dread and hatred’.   See: Kidnapped – Manly What’s In A Name

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TITANIC: HMS GUARDIAN – AUSTRALIA’S TITANIC

Wednesday, June 6th, 2018

‘The poor aborigines were quickly reduced to a state of starvation, and it is believed that many of them actually perished for want of food during the first few months of the occupation of their country’. Samuel Bennett, Australian Discovery and Colonisation, Vol 1 – 1800, facsimile ed. 1981

Documentary evidence supports the claim that Governor Phillip expected logistical support to reach him soon after the ‘First Fleet’ expeditionary force reached its destination but the expected ships never came.

1788 – July, Sydney:  ‘They [Aborigines] are now much distressed for food, few fish are caught & I am told that many of them appear on the Beach where the Boats  go to haul the Seins [trawling nets], very weak & anxious to get the small fish, of which they make no account in the Summer nor can we give them much assistance as very few fish are now caught, & we have many sick’. Arthur Phillip to Joseph Banks, 2 July 1788. Oxford Book of Australian Letters, ed. Brenda Niall, John Thompson, 1998   

The direst consequences of Britain’s callous abandonment of her country-men fell on the Aborigines of the Sydney area who; ‘were quickly reduced to a state of starvation’. See: Abandoned and Left to Starve Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790

1790

1790 – I January: ‘From the intelligence of our friends and connections we had been entirely cut off no communication whatever having passed with our native country since the 13th of May, 1787, the day of our departure from Portsmouth. We had now been two years in the country and thirty-two months  in which long period no supplies had reached us from England. from Portsmouth. Famine besides was approaching with gigantic strides’. Tench. ibid.    

Britain’s abandonment of the ‘First Fleet’ amounted to treachery. What was devastating for the English was catastrophic for Australia’s First Peoples. See: Arthur Phillip – Hung Out to Dry

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A PLAGUE OF LOCUSTS – THE ENGLISHMEN OF THE FIRST FLEET

Wednesday, April 4th, 2018

‘A very tasty pea and ham soup washed down with tea from the leaves of the local sarsaparilla vine. In fact being British the colonists drank so much of the stuff that sarsaparilla remains almost extinct in the area around Sydney’. Tony Robinson’s History of Australia, Penguin 2011.

1788 – 18 January, Botany Bay: HMS Supply, the first of eleven (11) vessels making up the ‘First Fleet’ with a complement of 1500 hungry souls, reached Botany Bay, in the island continent of New Holland, now Australia on 18th January 1788, almost immediately Supply deployed her seine [trawling] nets.

‘No sooner were the fish out of the water than they [Aborigines] began to lay hold of them as if they had a right to them, or that they were their own; upon which the officer of the boat, I think very properly, restrained them giving, however, to each of them a part. They did not at first seem very well pleased with this mode of procedure, but on observing with what justice this fish was distributed they appeared content’. John White, Chief Medical Officer, First Fleet Journal

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A HATCHET JOB: HEADS OFF THE BIDGIGAL OF BOTANY BAY

Sunday, March 25th, 2018

‘In war the trophy head is a mark of supremacy and respect’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta, 2015

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Cove: ‘The author of this publication [Captain Watkin Tench] received a direction to attend the governor [Arthur Phillip] at head quarters immediately.

I went, and his excellency informed me, that he had pitched upon me to execute the foregoing command…infuse universal terror…convince them of our superiority… if practicable, to bring away two [2] natives as prisoners and to put to death ten [10]. That we were to cut off, and bring in the heads of the slain, for which purpose, hatchets and bags would be furnished.

We were to proceed to the north arm of the [Botany] bay…destroy all weapons of war: no hut was to be burned: that all women and children were to remain uninjured’.  Marine Captain Watkin, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhadinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Can we know what drove Governor Phillip’s ferocity? Yes we can – simmering rebellion centred on ‘certain  officers’ of the newly arrived New South Wales Corps (June 1790)  in particular Lieutenant John Macarthur.

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SMALLPOX – A BIOLOGICAL WEAPON OF MASS DESTRUCTION – 1789

Wednesday, March 14th, 2018

‘From time to time throughout history, peoples and governments around the world have used micro-organisms as efficient and cost-effective weapons of mass destruction’. Professor Dorothy H. Crawford, The Invisible Enemy, Edinburgh University Press, 2000

In 1789 Indigenous Australians experienced viral ‘mass destruction’ –  ‘inexplicably, the [smallpox] epidemic did not affect the European population’.  People of Australia, Macquarie Series, Ed. Bryce Fraser, 1998

1789 – April,  Sydney: ‘ It is true, that our surgeons had brought out variolous (smallpox) matter in bottles.

The body of the [Aboriginal] woman showed that famine, superadded to disease, had occasioned her death’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, Sydney, 1961

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REAR WINDOW & ‘THE BUSINESS OF WAR’ : 7 FEBRUARY 2018 – 7 FEBRUARY 1788

Wednesday, February 7th, 2018

1788 – 7 February, Port Jackson: ‘We have come today to take possession of this fifth great continental division of the earth on behalf of the British people. I do not doubt that this country will prove the most valuable acquisition Great Britain ever made. How grand a prospect which lies before this youthful nation’. Governor Arthur Phillip RN, Historical Records of New South Wales.

How ‘grand a prospect’ lay before this ancient land’s First Peoples?

1838 – 21 December, London: ‘You cannot overrate the solicitude of H. M. Government on the subject of the Aborigines of New Holland. It is impossible to contemplate the condition or the prospects of that unfortunate race without the deepest commiseration.  Still it is impossible that the government should forget that the original aggression was ours’. Lord John Russell to [Governor] Sir George Gipps, 21 December 1838, Historical Records of Australia, Series 1. Vol. XX

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‘TERROR’ – ARTHUR’S ALGORITHM – OPEN SESAME!

Wednesday, October 4th, 2017

‘The ability to shock bestows a kind of power’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta, London, 2014

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Headquarters: Governor Arthur Phillip – General Orders to Marine Captain Watkin Tench: ‘Infuse universal terror…put ten [10] to death…cut off, and bring back the heads of the slain’. Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Year, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples can, with laser accuracy, plot their near annihilation from Governor Arthur Phillip’s orders of December 1790.

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

Where lay the threat to Governor Phillip in December 1790? Certainly not with the Bidjigal at Botany Bay cut down by smallpox. If not the Bidjigal who was Phillip ‘enemy’? See: A Clash of Giants – Arthur Phillip & John Macarthur – The Great Pretender

‘For the Sydney people to lose 50% or more of their military capability in a few weeks was a crushing blow’. Stephen Gapps, The Sydney Wars, NewSouth Books, 2018

The previous year (1789) smallpox had killed 50% of Sydney Aborigines leaving the survivors struggling to regroup. See: Smallpox – A Lethal Weapon Boston 1775, Sydney 1789 – Robert Ross and David Collins

1790 – 9  December, Botany Bay: ‘On the 9th of the month, a sergeant of marines, with three convicts…went out on a shooting party…to the north arm of Botany Bay…among them M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the convict of whom Bannelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred)’. Tench. ibid. See: Manly – Location, Location, Location

1790 – 10 December, Botany Bay: At 1 am; ‘the serjeant was awakened by a rustling noise in the bushes’. Pemulwuy the Aboriginal warrior speared John M’Entire; ‘he expressed a longing desire not to be left to expire in the woods’. See: A Tethered Goat

1790 – 11 December, Sydney: Tench says the shooting party, with M’Entire in tow, reached Sydney in the early hours of 12 December 1790.

1790 – 13 December, Sydney: ‘I [Tench] received a direction to attend the governor at head quarters immediately’ where Governor Phillip issued his General Orders:

‘Put to death ten cut off and bring back the heads of the slain…two prisoners I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners who may be brought in, in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected…and my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’.

Pemulwuy’s spearing of M’Entire was a targeted attack by a known assailant; ‘put ten [10] to death’ was indiscriminate retaliation – destroying the innocent as well as the guilty.

Tench registered shock; ‘here the governor stopped, and addressed himself to me said, if I could propose any alternation of the orders under which I was to act’.

Tench proposed; ‘capture six [6]…a part should be set aside for retaliation; and the rest, at a proper time, liberated, after seeing the fate of their comrades. This scheme, his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding, if six [6] cannot be taken, let this number [6] be shot’.

1790 – 13 December: Tench ordered his troops, fifty (50) men – two (2) officers with the regulation ratio of non-commissioned to forty (40) private soldiers; ‘be ready to go out tomorrow morning at daylight [14th] with three [3] days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners with and hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’.  See: A Hatchet Job – Heads Off The Bidgigal of Botany Bay

For Australia’s First Peoples the make-up of this detachment is of utmost importance. By December 1790 marines of the ‘troubled’ Sydney garrison were incapable of sustained effort.

‘The main battle was about having enough to eat’. Don Watson, Story of Australia, 1984

All of ‘Phillip’s people’ had been marooned since 1788. The marines suffered profound lethargy from prolonged semi-starvation, most could barely stand let alone undertake a three (3) days march in full kit under a blazing December sun. See: Abandoned and Left To Starve at Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790

1790 – 14 December, Sydney:  So it is certain, when the section moved out for Botany Bay on the 14th of December 1790, the majority of its forty (40) rank and file would have been infantrymen of the New South Wales Corps who, in June 1790, arrived from England to relieve the beleaguered marines. See: Dark Matter

The newly arrived foot troops were first contingent of; ‘twenty-five regiments of British infantry they participated in the great struggle at the heart of the European conquest of this continent’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

‘There are two kinds of error; those of commission, doing something that should not be done, and those of omission, not doing something that should be done, the latter are much more serious than the former’. Kenneth Hoper and William Hopper, The Puritan Gift, Forward, Russell Lincoln Ackoff, I.B. Tauris, 2009.

1792 –  12 December, Sydney: Governor Phillip sailed for home in mid December 1792. Tragically for the First Australians London failed to commission a successor. Captain John Hunter RN, the second governor, would not reach Sydney until September 1795.

‘For the length of the interregnum [1792-1795] the British government was greatly at fault’. J.J. Achmuty, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Governor John Hunter.

‘Omission’ by default the immense power invested in Arthur Phillip as Governor of New South Wales, said to be unique in Britain’s long history of empire building, devolved to the military.

‘Convince them of our superiority’; there is no evidence Governor Phillip’s orders of December 1790 were ever countermanded. Extant, they served as a template that went onto govern all future confrontations between the British invaders and Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples.

1792 – 13 December: The day following Phillip’s departure Major Francis Grose commanding officer of the New South Wales Corps took control of the colony. He dismissed the civil magistrates appointed by Governor Phillip as required by official Letters Patent.

‘The traffic in spirits was commenced by the officers and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Historical Records of Australia.

Grose, wounded in the American War of Independence 1775-1783, proved a lackadaisical commander. He appointed Lieutenant John Macarthur paymaster.

‘The control of labour was largely vested in his new regimental pay-master, Lieutenant John Macarthur – a central figure in the military mafia which quickly established itself as Australia’s first governing and property-owing elite’. Arthur Phillip, Gentleman, Scholar and Seaman, Dr. Nigel Rigby, Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Dr. Pieter Van der Merwe, British National Maritime Museum, Prof. Emeritius History, Queen Mary, University of London, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London, 2018

For the next twenty-five (25) years ‘frontier war, nasty and decidedly lacking in glorycentred on Aboriginal river lands, the Deerrubin – Hawkesbury, Nepean and Grose River systems.

When Major Grose returned to England at the of 1794 Captain William Paterson, another physically and emotionally damaged ‘three bottles a day’ veteran of the American Revolutionary War succeeded him.

By 1794 over four hundred (400) settlers were farming Dharug; ‘thirty miles along the banks on both sides of the [Hawkesbury] River it has been estimated that between 1794 and 1800 at least twenty-six [26] Whites and up to two hundred [200] Aborigines were killed’. Stanley. ibid.

1795 – June, Hawkesbury:  Governor Hunter was still on the high seas when Paterson; ‘sent a detachment of two [2] subalterns and sixty [60] privates of the New South Wales to the river…to destroy as many as they could…a well to drive the natives to a distance, as for the protections of the settlers.

It gives me concern to have been forced to destroy any of these people, particularly as I have no doubt of their having been cruelly treated by some of the settlers who went out there’. Captain William Paterson to Right Hon. Henry Dundas, 15 June 1795, Historical Records of Australia. See: A Worm Hole – Richard Atkins Diary

The troops Paterson deployed to the Hawkesbury saw limited skirmishes escalate to ‘open warfare’ accelerating destruction of the Dharug whose spears, guts, and guile could not match the increased fire-power.

1795 – September: Governor John Hunter RN reached Sydney in late September 1795. Despite John Macarthur’s spirited antagonism directed at him the new governor managed to restore what passed for ‘English civil law’ in New South Wales.

1799 – March, Sydney: Four (4) years later Governor Hunter ordered ‘five [5] European] men changed with the murder of two [2] native boys’.

Lieutenant Neil MacKellar, in command at the Hawkesbury from 1797 to 1799, was called to give evidence in court.

‘Under questioning he stated that the orders issued [1795] for the destruction of Aboriginals whenever encountered, after they had committed outrages, had not been countermanded during his command at the Hawkesbury nor to his knowledge since’. Neill Mackellar, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Brigadier M. Austin

1799 – London: While the trial was in progress Hunter was informed of his recall to England. The reasons given were twofold. He had failed to stop the importation of ‘fiery Indian rum’ imported from Bengal and he did not to get along with the military thugs of the New South Wales ‘Rum’ Corps.

‘The traffic in spirits was commenced by the officers and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Records. ibid.

Teetotaller John Macarthur was prime mover in the importation of rum from Bengal. Rum bought cheaply and, sold at an exorbitant mark-up, generated immense profits for certain officers of the ‘Rum’ Corps and their cronies.

When the ex-convicts who bought their rum went broke the officers who sold it to them were on hand to buy up their farms.

From 1788 there had been continuous disputation between the civil power represented by the autocratic uniformed naval governors and the military’. John McMahon, Not a Rum Rebellion but a Military Insurrection, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 92, 2006

Lieutenant John ‘McMafia’ Macarthur was the common denominator in the recall to London of Governor Phillip’s immediate successors, the naval Governors, John Hunter, Phillip Gidley King and William Bligh.

And when he returned from a lengthy forced exile in England Macarthur was just in time to add a practised hand in the character assassination of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, the first British Governor recruited from military ranks.

1800 – Sydney: Governor Hunter was replaced by Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King, who like Hunter was another First Fleeter returning ‘home’ to Australia. See: Down the Rabbit Hole with Hunter

1800-1806: See: The Irish & the English King in Australia.

1806 – August 1806: Governor William Bligh RN arrived in Sydney orders for Governor Phillip Gidley King’s recall. See: Down The Rabbit Hole with King

1808 – 26 January, Sydney: When ‘Bounty’ Bligh made strenuous effort to stem the tsunami of grog he too found himself under attack from Macarthur. On the 20th anniversary of Captain Arthur Phillip’s raising of the Union Jack Governor Bligh was taken arrested by the New South Wales Corps. See: Australia Day Rebellion – Australia Day 1808

EPILOGUE

 ‘The natives will be made severe examples of whenever any man is wounded by them….and my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’. Governor Phillip, cited Tench. ibid

Governor Phillip General Orders of 13th and ‘differing in no respect from the last‘ were repeated on 22 December 1790. The second raid triggered an algorithm for ‘future terror’ that ‘lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth century’. Kercher. ibid.

 

A map detailing ‘the better documented’ massacres of ‘dissenting Aboriginal’ Australians from the 1790s – to the 1920s was published in 2017

 

1816 – April, Appin: The first to meet the criteria of fourteen (14) known killed occurred in Macarthur country at Broughton Pass in April 1816. Governor Lachlan Macquarie’s orders of 10 April are eerily similar to those of Governor Arthur Phillip in December 1790.in lock-step with

 

The ‘The warrior skilled at stirring the enemy proffers the bait’. Sun-Tzu, The Art of War, Penguin Books, 2009 

See: Mc Intyre – Death of a Sure Thing

 

1816: Appin:

 

 

 

 

 

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LIEUTENANT WILLIAM DAWES – ‘THE ETERNAL FLAME’ & ‘UNIVERSAL TERROR’

Wednesday, September 6th, 2017

‘He [Dawes] was the scholar of the expedition, man of letters and man of science, explorer, mapmaker, student of language of anthropology, teacher and philanthropist. Professor G. Arnold Wood, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society Vol. X, 1924, Part 1

Aside from Kate Grenville’s 2008 fictional cardboard cut-out, star-struck Daniel Rooke of The Lieutenant, Australia knows very  little of Marine Lieutenant William Dawes and almost nothing of his pivotal role in revealing the why and wherefore of Britain’s military campaign against Australia’s First Nations –  a ‘war nasty and decidedly lacking in glory’. See: The Big Switch

‘English clockmaker John Harrison, a mechanical genius who pioneered the science of portable precision timekeeping…invented a clock that would carry the true time from the home port, like an eternal flame, to any remote corner of the world’. Dava Sobel, Longitude, Fourth Estate, 1998

1788 – 26 January, Warranne:  In Lieutenant Dawe’s care ‘an eternal flame’  K I – a faithful replica of John Harrison’s H – 4 ‘sea-going pocket watch’ fetched up at one particular ‘remote corner of the world’  – Sydney Cove – on 26 January 1788 aboard HMS Supply one (1) of eleven (11) ships of the ‘First Fleet’.

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A TETHERED GOAT – JOHN McENTIRE- 10 DECEMBER 1790

Wednesday, August 30th, 2017

‘Its now about two years and three months since we first arrived at this distant country; all this while we have been as it were buried alive, never having the opportunity to hear from our friends…our hopes are now almost vanished’. Reverend Richard Johnson, 9 April 1790‘. Jack Egan, Buried Alive, Eyewitness accounts of the making of a nation 1788-92, Allen and Unwin, Sydney 1999

1790 – 3 June, Sydney: Two (2) months later; ‘Flags Up…a ship with London on her stern’. Lady Juliana, with two hundred and twenty-six ‘useless’ female convicts was first of four (4) vessels that made up Britain’s Grim Armada the second fleet.

1790, June: By the end of June the fleet’s death ships Alexander, Scarborough and Suprize arrived with approximately one thousand men. Seven hundred and fifty (750) convicts and one hundred and fifteen (115) foot soldiers – infantry, first contingent of the New South Wales Corps.

‘The great change came in the arrival with the Second Fleet of the companies of the New South Wales Corps’. Nigel Rigby, Peter van der Merwse, Glyn Williams. Pacific Explorations, Voyages of Discovery from Captain Cook’s Endeavour to the Beagle, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London, 2018

Justinian a well-stocked store-ship from England was seen off the Heads but cyclonic weather forced her out to sea. Benjamin Maitland her master sailed north as far as present-day Stockton before the weather abated sufficiently for a return to Sydney by the end of June.

But Governor Phillip was in for a rude shock; ‘the distribution of provisions rested entirely with the masters of [all] the merchantmen’. Maitland immediately opened a shop to sell his stock as did the Lady Juliana.

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, A History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

From day one – January 1788 – Governor Phillip struggled to keep starvation at bay. He authorised official hunting parties of marines and convicts .See: Abandoned and Left to Starve @ Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790

Some were sent into the bush to forage for food, others shot anything that moved, others trawled for fish while the weakest gathered shellfish along the shoreline. See: A Plague of Locusts – the Englishmen of the First Fleet.

1790 – 9 December, Botany Bay: John McIntyre, Phillip’s own game- keeper had gone out to shoot kangaroo at Botany Bay where Pemulway a young warrior speared him.

1790 – 13 December, Sydney:  Retaliation Governor Phillip summoned Marine Captain Watkin Tench to ‘Headquarters’.

Tench was ordered to march to Botany Bay at ‘day-light to-morrow morning…to put to death ten[10] we were to cut off, and bring in the heads of the slain, for which purpose, hatchets and bags would be provided [and] if practicable, bring away two [2] natives as prisoners.

I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners who may be brought in, in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

1790 – 14 December: ‘two [2] captains, two [2] subalterns, and forty [40] privates, with a proper number of non-commissioned officers’ made up the Tench detachment.

Isolated in the midst of a hostile military in order to take the heat off himself Governor Phillip chose diversion – summon a common enemy. See: Missing in Action – HMS Sirius & HMS Supply

‘From the aversion uniformly shown by all the natives to this unhappy man he [McEntire] had long been suspected of having, in his excursions, shot and injured them’. Professor G. A. Wood, Lieutenant William Dawes and Captain Watkin Tench, Royal Australian Historical Society Journal, Vol. 10, Part 1, 1924

Phillip claimed the attack on McIntyre was ‘unprovoked’. In light of what he knew it does not take a military strategist to smell a rat. Phillip’s intelligence was firm. McIntyre’s inclusion his ‘service is for the state’ was deliberate provocation. See: April Fools Day- 1776

Manly Beach: ‘Wednesday 25th November 1789; ‘It was a cloudy day with some  rain. The temperature was in the high seventies and the wind mainly from the south Bradley wrote; ‘Governor Phillip, judging it necessary that a native should be taken by force… I was ordered on this service, having the master, two petty officers a a boat’s crew with me in one of the governor’s boats’. Lieutenant Bradley RN, cited Egan, Buried Alive

Bennalong was ‘taken by force’. During months of imprisonment within British lines Phillip and Bennalong developed a close relationship. Phillip had no doubt Sydney’s Aboriginal community regarded McIntyre with ‘dread and hatred’. See: Kidnapped – Manly What’s In a Name

Although John McIntyre had  been severely wounded he was still alive on the 13th of December 1790 so it is little wonder Tench was dismayed when given his orders. As a result the scope of the initial orders was modified.

Phillip agreed to Tench’s proposal; ‘bring in six [6]…out of this, part might be set aside for retaliation; and the rest at a proper time, liberated, after having seen the fate of their comrades. This scheme, his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding if six [6] cannot be taken let that number [6] be shot. Tench. ibid. 

Marine Captain Tench and Lieutenant William Dawes both friend and confrere, aware of how McIntyre was viewed, had very different responses to Governor Phillip’s orders. See: Lieutenant William Dawes ‘The Eternal Flame’ & Universal Terror

Tench had been perfectly willing, after discussion with the Governor, to lead the expedition, and heartily enjoyed the humour of its adventures.

But Dawes, whose tour of duty it was to go out with that party, refused that duty by letter “and persisted in his refusal, even after the Governor had “taken great pains to point out the consequences of his being put under an arrest’. G.A. Wood. ibid.

Tench no doubt counselled Dawes that his refusal to obey would have dire consequences and, if Marine Major Robert Ross his Commanding Officer had not been evacuated to Norfolk Island in March 1790, he would now be under arrest.

If found guilty at court-martial Dawes could be shot for gross dereliction of duty or as a traitor hanged, drawn and quartered while still alive.

It is not known if Marine Captain David Collins judge-advocate, although not a lawyer was the settlement’s senior law man, knew that in 1782 the ‘disembowelled while alive’ barbarity had been legislated out as punishment for military treason.

Still Dawes the fleet’s principal scientific officer persisted in his refusal. Adjutant Lieutenant Lowe instructed Dawes should put his objections in writing which he did.

Nevertheless he approached Reverend Richard Johnson the First Fleet Chaplain who counselled Dawes on his  military obligation.

Subsequently Dawes ‘informed Captain Campbell that the Rev. Mr. Johnson thought he might obey the order, and that he was ready to go out with the party, which he did’. Tench. ibid.

1790 – December 14: At dawn on the 14th of December Tench’s detachment of fifty (50) men moved out for Botany Bay with; ‘three [3] days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners, and hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’. Tench. ibid. 

The raid failed – no heads, no prisoners.

1790 – December 17: ‘We bent our steps homeward; and after wading breast-high through two arms of the sea, as broad as the Thames at Westminster, were glad to find ourselves at Sydney, between one and two o’clock in the afternoon’.

However the troops returned to a very different Sydney from the settlement they left only three (3) days before. The landing stage was crammed with barrels, bales of stuff and the air filled with the heady smell of cooking.

At first light that very morning Waaksamheyd a ‘Dutch Snow’ from Jakarta had sailed into Sydney Harbour loaded with the supplies Lieutenant Ball had ‘purchased for the settlement’. See: Missing in Action – HMS Sirius & HMS Supply

1790 – December 19: ‘[Dawes] informed the Governor that he was sorry he had been persuaded to comply with the order and very clearly showed that he would not obey a similar order in future’. Tench. ibid

Lieutenant Dawes again wrote to Governor Phillip this time through Captain Campbell who, in March 1789, had replaced Major Ross as commander of the Sydney garrison when imminent starvation had forced Phillip evacuate 50% of ‘his people’ to Norfolk Island. See: Smallpox – A Lethal Weapon Boston 1775 Major Robert Ross and David Collins – Sydney 1789 

The necessity for such a letter from Dawes may have been prompted by Governor Phillip’s initial order that specified;‘ my [Phillip’s] fixed determination to repeat it, whenever future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’.

Or there may have been a very different reason.

Waaksamheyd’s arrival had opened a Pandora’s Box of possibilities; among them escape or capture of the Dutch vessel as a pathway to military insurrection and anarchy – the overthrow of Phillip as Governor and Captain-General. See: Machiavellian Macarthur

The first of these possibilities, escape with help from Waaksamheyd’s captain, was realised. A group of convicts stole Phillip’s cutter escaped from Sydney and rowed to Coupang, West Timor in one of the world’s most extraordinary sea-sagas.

From Timor, then by various means to Batavia, to Cape Town, to Portsmouth, to Newgate gaol and back to the dock of the Old Bailey where James Boswell mounted a spirited defence on their behalf. See: Boswell Goes Into Bat for the Botany Bay Escapees 

Under threat from the Sirius’ cannon mounted at Dawes Point Phillip deftly averted the seizure of Waaksamheyd. He negated a military rebellion by ordering a second raid against the Bidjigal of Botany Bay.

1790 – December 22: ‘Our first expedition having so totally failed, the governor resolved to try the fate of a second; and the ‘painful pre-eminence’ again devolved on me. The orders under which I was commanded to act differing in no respect from the last’.

When ‘a little before sunset on the evening of the 22d, we marched. Lieutenant Abbot and ensign Prentice of the New South Wales Corps were the two [2] officers under my command, and with three [3] sergeants, three [3] corporals, and thirty [30] privates completed the detachments‘ Lieutenant William Dawes was not among them.

Tench says his orders ‘differing in no respect from the lastreiterated Governor Phillip’s stated intent ‘infuse universal terror…kill 6…cut off…bring in the heads of the slain…two [2] prisoners to execute’. See: Terror – Arthur’s Algorithm

What changed however was Captain Tench’s attitude and tactics. They differed markedly from the enjoyable ‘adventure’ Professor Wood claimed for the first raid.

Tench wrote; ‘I resolved to try once more to suprise the village beforementioned. And in order to deceive the natives, and prevent them from again frustrating our design by promulgating it, we feigned that our preparations were directed against Broken Bay, and that the man [Willamarin] who had wounded the governor [September 1790 at Manly] was the object of the punishment.

It was now determined, being full moon that our operations should be carried on in the night, both for the sake of secrecy, and for avoiding the extreme heat of the day’.

‘We feigned’ – who then was the target, who was Tench trying to kid?

The big switch – it is highly likely Tench’s ‘preparations’ to go after Willamarin were designed to dampen dissatisfaction within the ranks of the New South Wales Corps, particularly ‘certain officers‘ outraged by Phillip’s refusal to retaliate following his own spearing by Willeemarin. See: The Switch 1790 – Context – War With France 1793-1815

In June 1790 the first contingent of infantry troops – The New South Wales Corps – had arrived with the second fleet. But they came without Major Francis Grose their commanding office. The power vacuum was filled by Lieutenant John Macarthur a junior officer who can best be described as Australia’s Machiavelli.  See: John Macarthur – The Great Disrupter

‘Twenty five regiments of British infantry served in the colonies between 1790 and 17870…ensuring the literal survival of white settlement…and for the first half of their stay were probably more frequently in action than the garrison of any other colony besides that of southern Africa…war nasty and decidedly lacking in glory’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986.

It must be emphasised due to prolonged semi-starvation, other than Marine Captain Watkin Tench, the rank and file of the detachment assembled for both raids, in particular the second foray, would have been made up almost entirely of fresh troops – infantry-men of the New South Wales Corps – ‘who fought in one of the most prolonged frontier wars in the history of the British empire‘. Stanley. ibid.

EPILOGUE

‘A smokescreen of legal confusion and argument covered up a continuing pattern of killings at the frontiers of the Australian colonies’. Kercher. ibid.

There can be no ‘confusion’ when it comes to Governor Phillip’s orders. His ‘rules of engagement’ demonstrate clear intent and put no limit on brutality. They served as a template; ‘whenever a future breach of good conduct on their side shall render it necessary’..  

1790 – December: ‘Differing in no respect from the last’ it is from this second raid that Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples can, with laser accuracy, plot ‘a continuing pattern of killings’ that led to their near destruction. See: A Cracker Jack Opinion – No Sweat

ADDENDUM

‘New Holland is a blind, then, when we want to add to the military strength of India…I need not enlarge on the benefit of stationary a large body of troops in New South Wales…Should any disturbance happen in the East Indies’. Anon, Historical Records of New South Wales

Talk is currently centred on Australia’s position in the Indo-Pacific. The global context that drove Britain’s invasion of New Holland has come full circle. See: Britain + America + France + India + China + Peru + New Holland + New South Wales = Australia

Aside from Captain Cook, covered in primary 3rd grade, a vox pop of school-leavers working in local shops and supermarkets, reveal they know very little of Australia’s modern history, almost nothing of its context and nothing of Captain Arthur Phillip RN.

For the first two [2] it is simply don’t know don’t care.  But for the last Phillip who was prepared to go to any lengths for ‘King and Country’  that’s deliberate – that’s a cover-up.

The place to look is France 1783. The Treaty of Versailles, September 1783, brought a formal end to the American War of Independence 1775-1783.

France, to a lesser extent Spain, cost Britain her American colonies. Not just a few expendables thirteen (13) colonies – Connecticut, North and South Carolina, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, , New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia.

There were plans to use the [New South Wales] corps in expeditions against Panama, Peru and the Philippines, but nothing eventuated and the corps’ first experience of war came in January 1795 on the Hawkesbury River, north-west of Sydney’. Dr. Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986

Aside from strategic and trade considerations Britain’s invasion of New Holland was driven by humiliation.

Britain’s ‘pride and prejudice’ created a divided nation. White Australia’s ‘fair go’ mantra perpetuates the division.

It is time to shatter these ’empty words’ and address the smokescreen of legal confusion’ that lost the First Nations’ Peoples their sovereignty. See: A Cracker- Jack Opinion – No Sweat 

2019: After all Brexit is about British sovereignty.