Archive for the ‘America’ Category

STEALING STUFF

Tuesday, April 7th, 2020

‘Since the Age of Elizabeth 1, the British had had global ambitions in which possession of Central America offered the prospect of opening a path between the Atlantic and Pacific’. Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy, The Men Who Lost America, Yale University Press, New Haven, London 2013

Spanish South America: 1558-1603 from the time of Tudor Elizabeth , despite determined efforts by the Queen’s buccaneers – Sir Jack Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh and, a myriad privateers, England failed to oust Spain from her conquered territories, strung tantalisingly along the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts of Central and South America.

England: To fill Elizabeth’s dwindling coffers Treasury came to rely on loot taken at the point of the sword by swarms of Englishmen as they hit ‘treasure laden galleon’s en-route from Peru, Nicaragua, Panama and Chile to Spain.

New Holland: When the ‘First Fleet’ sailed from Portsmouth for New Holland, now Australia in May 1787, Governor Captain Arthur Phillip RN took with him ‘secret plans’ to attack Spain’s fabled Pacific ‘treasure’ colonies .See: Botany Bay – Lord Sydney, Arthur Philip & ‘Hush’ Christopher Robin’ Mark 2

London: ‘Secret plans‘ that were Phillip’s own. He had drawn them up in 1782, at the behest of Thomas Townshend Lord Sydney, the newly minted Home Secretary, while Britain was actively engaged in the American War of Independence 1775-1783 . See: Monte Video – Lord Sydney, Arthur Phillip & ‘Hush’ Christopher Robin’ Mark 1 

Jamaica: Phillip’s plans had their genesis in the failed 1779 San Juan Expedition the brain-child of John Dalling the military Governor of Jamaica.

Canada: Earlier  (1759) during the North American theatre of the Seven Years’ War 1756-63, Governor Dalling served under General James Wolfe.

Despite being wounded in the scaling of the Heights of Abraham from where British artillery bombarded into submission the French General Joseph Montcalm’s men camped on the Plains below, Dalling was present when Britain captured Quebec from the French in 1759.

In 1779 embroiled now in America’s Revolutionary War, driven no doubt by that past glory, Dalling devised a plan to attack Spanish Nicaragua.

Dalling’s Nicaraguan plan had a lot to recommend it and with it he aimed to break Spain’s domination of Central and South America.

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A CRACKER-JACK OPINION – NO SWEAT

Tuesday, July 19th, 2016

‘During the period 1763-1793 the character of the Second British Empire was being formed…the empire of commerce in the Indian and Pacific Oceans’. Vincent T. Harlow, The Founding of the Second British Empire 1763-1793, Vol. 2 Longmans, 1963

England – 1771: Lieutenant James Cook RN returned to England from the Endeavour voyage (1786-1771). He reported the island continent named New Holland by Dutch explorers, now Australia, was inhabited.

‘The natives of the country…live in Tranquility which is not disturb’d by the inequality of condition’. James Cook, Endeavour Journal

According eighteenth century international law only if territory was without inhabitants could it be claimed by another nation to be shared  amongst that nation’s citizens.

The whole claim of sovereignty and ownership on the basis of terra nullius was manifestly based on a misreading of Australian circumstance, not that this prevented Phillip from hoisting the Union Jack in 1788 and expropriating the owners of Sydney Cove. Stuart Mac Intyre, A Concise History of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 2004  

‘ACTUAL OCCUPATION’ OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY‘EXISTING IN FACT

England’s lawyers burned midnight oil as they sought to establish legal grounds that would allow Britain take ‘effective occupation’ from those in ‘actual possessionof New Holland.

To that end they studied the tortuous twists and turns of English law, as laid down in the ‘Commentaries’ of England’s leading jurist Sir William Blackstone.

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