Archive for the ‘Criminals – Australia’s Founding Fathers’ Category

ARTHUR PHILLIP – TRADE – THE IMPORTANCE OF BEING ARTHUR & THE DEFENCE OF TRADE

Wednesday, October 17th, 2018

There can be no question of right or wrong in such a case [as New Holland]. The only right is that of superiority of race, and the greater inherent capability on the part of the whites; the only real wrong on the part of the blacks their all-round inferiority and their inability to till the ground or even make use of its natural pastures. Their disappearance was a natural necessity’. James Collier, The Pastoral Age in Australasia, London, 1911. Reprint, Forgotten Books, 2018

‘The essentials of Britain’s foreign policy are bound to be basically two; trade and defence, particularly the defence of trade. There is no hard and fast line between foreign policy and other aspects of policy; domestic, economic and colonial’. C.M. Woodhouse, British Foreign Policy since WW II, 1961

As the 1600s morphed into the 1700s science progressed and maritime technology advanced exploration. Competing territorial and trade ambitions burgeoned throughout Europe, none as fierce as those between traditional enemies Britain and France.

The Treaty of Utrecht (1713) a series of agreements brought a formal end to the War of Spanish Succession (1701-14). Under its terms Britain became the largest exporter of ‘chattel’ slaves.

‘When the expanding [colonial] plantation economy demanded more labor than could be supplied by white servants, Africans were imported as slaves: that is ‘chattel’ slaves…chattel slavery, the most debased form of bondage.

In its most extreme form it evolved in British America, took form in British-American law, in response to the need for a totally reliable, totally exploitable, and infinitely recruitable labour force’. Professor Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of the British Peripheries, Esso Lecture, 1988, Canberra.

In 1772 Britain’s participation in the cruel but very profitable Atlantic Negro slave trade came under close scrutiny.

‘Lord Mansfield made his famous judgement in Somerset’s case (1772), by which slavery was declared illegal in this country‘. J.H. Plumb, England In The Eighteenth Century (1714-1815), Pelican 1965, p. 159 

Following the Mansfield decision William Wilberforce and the anti-slavery movement in general redoubled efforts to abolish all forms of human trafficking including England’s export of her convicted criminals.

Since legislation, Transportation Act of 1717[18], Britain had off-loaded to America many prisoners reprieved death on condition they be transported ‘out of the realm’.

At the rate of 1000 per year these prisoners were shipped to America and sold at regular ‘slave scrambles’. To be more precise – their labour was sold. Sex, skill, physical and mental condition determined the sale price, buyers were mainly plantation owners.

‘The factors who handled convict sales often had pre-existing customer orders that they met when convicts with the desired appropriate skills became available’. Edith M. Ziegler, Harlots, Hussies & Poor Unfortunate Women, Crime, Transportation & The Servitude of Female Convicts 1718-1783, University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa, 2014

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A HATCHET JOB: HEADS OFF THE BIDGIGAL OF BOTANY BAY

Sunday, March 25th, 2018

‘In war the trophy head is a mark of supremacy and respect’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta, 2015

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Cove: ‘The author of this publication [Captain Watkin Tench] received a direction to attend the governor [Arthur Phillip] at head quarters immediately.

I went, and his excellency informed me, that he had pitched upon me to execute the foregoing command…infuse universal terror…convince them of our superiority… if practicable, to bring away two [2] natives as prisoners and to put to death ten [10]. That we were to cut off, and bring in the heads of the slain, for which purpose, hatchets and bags would be furnished.

We were to proceed to the north arm of the [Botany] bay…destroy all weapons of war: no hut was to be burned: that all women and children were to remain uninjured’.  Marine Captain Watkin, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhadinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Can we know what drove Governor Phillip’s ferocity? Yes we can – simmering rebellion centred on ‘certain  officers’ of the newly arrived New South Wales Corps (June 1790)  in particular Lieutenant John Macarthur.

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ARTHUR PHILLIP – SOLDIER SPY & A MILITARY CAMPAIGN HIDDEN IN PLAIN SIGHT

Tuesday, March 6th, 2018

‘In November [1784] Henry Dundas, possibly Pitt’s closest advisor, warned that ‘India is the first quarter to be attacked, we must never lose sight of keeping such a force there as well be sufficient to baffle or surprise’. Dundas, cited Michael Pembroke, Arthur Phillip Sailor Mercenary Governor Spy, Hardie Grant Books, Victoria, 2013

Until quite recently it was generally held that Captain Arthur Phillip RN was ‘plucked from obscurity’ to command the First Fleet’. But like ‘amity and kindness’, Australia’s foundation myth – benign colonisation – ‘U.K. Privy Council [11] Cooper V Stuart [1889] New South Wales…peacefully annexed’ – nothing could be further from the truth.

‘New Holland is a blind then, when we want to add to the military strength of India…I need not enlarge on the benefit of stationing a large body of troops in New South Wales’. Anon, Historical Records of Australia

Key to the success of the ‘First Fleet’ was laid a decade earlier during Arthur Phillip’s four (4) year sojourn in Brazil. Seconded to the Portuguese Navy, fluent in Portuguese and based in Rio de Janeiro, Phillip established good relations with Viceroy Lavradio.

When in August 1787 the fleet en-route to Botany Bay put into Rio for supplies Phillip found Marquess Vasconcelos, Lavradio’s successor,  held him in high regard. In the race for New Holland Vasconcelos’s support proved vital to Britain’s victory over France.

The win on the cusp of ‘the greatest event of the late eighteenth century’ – the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars – February 1793 to June 1815 guaranteed Britain domination of alternate sea routes to India with its ample supply of saltpetre one of the world’s most sought after natural resources in time of war. See: Britain By A Short Half-Head Arthur Phillip and Jean Francois La Perouse

During Lord Sydney’s time as secretary of state, the Home Office was a clearing house. Its jurisdiction included overseeing of naval officers involved in trade regulation, secret service and special projects. As a result Sydney crossed paths with three men who left their mark on history – Horotio Nelson, William Bligh and Arthur Phillip. Lord Sydney [the life and times of Tommy Townshend] Andrew Tink, 2011.

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TO KILL A MOCKING BIRD – THOMAS BARRETT

Wednesday, February 21st, 2018

‘He [ Barrett] may have been the maker of the Botany Bay Medallion…a skilfully engraved metal medallion inscribed with a relief description of the voyage dated 20 January 1788 and a representation of the Charlotte at anchor in Botany Bay. Mollie Gillen, Founders of Australia, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1990

1788 – February 27, Sydney Cove: Thomas Barrett was the first person hanged in European Australia. A plague on the corner of Harrington and Essex Street in Sydney’s Rocks area marks Barrett’s fleeting presence in and dramatic exit from Australia.

Barrett fashioned the ‘Botany Bay Medallion’ AKA the ‘Charlotte Medal from a ‘silver coloured metal kidney dish’ belonging to Dr. John White who, as Chief Medical Officer would have certified Barrett’s death. See: From Here to Eternity 

White an excellent medical administrator was nevertheless a flawed character exemplified by the controversy over the Watling Collection of paintings that remains currrant to this day.

 

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A WORM-HOLE: RICHARD ATKIN’S DIARY & THE FIRST BLACK HOLE

Wednesday, February 21st, 2018

‘You are also with the consent of the natives to take possession of convenient situations in the country in the name of the King of Great  Britain, or if you find the country uninhabited take possession for His Majesty by setting up proper marks and inscriptions as first discoverers and possessors’. British Admiralty Instructions to Lieutenant James Cook RN, 1768. 

1770 – August, Possession Island: In 1770 although Lieutenant James Cook RN wrote ‘the natives of the country [New Holland] live in Tranquilly which is not disturb’d by the inequality of condition’ in the name of His Majesty King George III of England ‘without consent’ of its Peoples, he marked a tree ran up a flag and named their territory New Wales. See: Captain Cook, Charles Green, John Harrison – Three Yorkshirmen Walked Into A Bar – Nevil Maskelyne

‘Military power was the most decisive fact about the early settlements; it was the frame within which everything else happened’. R. Connell and T.H. Irving, Class Structure in Australian History, Documents, Narrative and Argument, 1980.

1788 – 28 January, Sydney Cove: ‘At 6 am the disembarkation began’ a British army commanded by Captain Arthur Phillip RN, two hundred and forty-five (245) marines, two hundred (200) Royal Naval personnel, twenty (20) officials, five hundred and seventy (570) male criminals – ‘rationed as troops serving in the West Indies’, thirty-one (31) marine wives and twenty-three (23) marine  children disembarked from the ‘First Fleet’ at Warrane now Sydney Cove.

A further four hundred and forty (440) merchant-seamen made up the fleet’s complement of 1500 souls.

1788 – 6 February: ‘The day the convict women [one hundred and eighty-nine [189 – 22 free children] disembarked they landed by rowing boas between 6am and 6 pm’. John Moore, The First Fleet Marines 1786-1792, Queensland University Press, 1986

See: Only Men ? Aside from Seagulls How Many White Birds Were On The Ground At Sydney Cove On 26 January 1788 – None

1788 – 7 February, Port Jackson: Captain-General, now Governor Arthur Phillip RN, raised the Union Jack . ‘Using a form of words’ he proclaimed possession by ‘effective occupation’ – conquest – of the island continent of New Holland, now Australia, for he British Empire.

The winner-takes-all mindset of Britain’s ‘original aggression’ – laid down in 1788 – was set in stone during two (2) critical periods of absolute military rule between 1792-1795 and 1808-1810.

1790 – June, Sydney: One hundred and fifteen (115) officers and infantrymen, first contingent of the New South Wales Corps raised specifically to replace the ‘troubled’ Sydney marine garrison, arrived with a second fleet  in June 1790 but without Major Francis Grose their commanding officer. See: ‘Britain’s Grim Armada’ – The Dead and the Living Dead

Grose remained in England and recruited to meet establishment requirements. The power vacuum was filled by Lieutenant John Macarthur, an ambitious, intelligent but unscrupulous junior officer.

At Macarthur’s urging officers pooled their cash morphed into powerful trading cartels and operated as both wholesale and retail merchants holding the infant colony in an economic strangle-hold. See: Machiavellian Macarthur

1792 – February, Sydney: Major Grose arrived at the beginning of February 1792 aboard Pitt a convict transport. One (1) of eleven (11) vessels contracted to a firm of slave-traders Camden, Calvert and King this third fleet brought one thousand eight hundred (1800) mostly male convicts and two hundred (200) additional troops. See: G is for Gender

Among a handful of free settlers was Richard Atkins. Atkins, the dissolute son of baronet Sir William Bower, kept a diary written; ‘in that uninhibited  fashion to which Georgian diarists were prone’. See: Boswell Goes Into Bat

In so novel and primitive a penal settlement Atkin’s polished upbringing and influential family connextions at once marked him as a privileged member of society, particularly as the colonists did not know the real reason for his coming. Journal, Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 52. Part 4, 1966

Atkins ‘made much of the fame of his [high profile] brothers’. In a colony almost entirely devoid of educated men, those in authority  failed to see Richard Atkins for what he was, a plausible con-man. Atkins was awarded positions far in excess of his abilities.

Governor Phillip accordingly appointed this virtual outlaw as a Justice of the Peace and sent him to Parramatta to augment the summary legal administration there’. RAHSoc. Journal. op.cit.

What of Richard Atkins the man? It seems, now as then, it is hard to find a good word.

Atkins; Addicted to liquor, immorality and insolvency he led a thoroughly dissolute life….The colony’s principal legal officer for years…when he was sober he was impressive enough to delude creditors and governor alike; but he was ignorant and merciless, an inveterate debauchee’. Australian Dictionary of Biography

Yet Atkin’s journal is a tardis; a wormhole into Britain’s toxic military occupation of Australia.

1838 – December, London: ‘You cannot overrate the solicitude of H.M. Government on the subject of the Aborigines of New Holland. It is impossible to contemplate the condition or the prospects of that unfortunate race without the deepest commiseration. Still it is impossible that the government should forget that the original aggression was ours’. Lord John Russell to Sir George Gipps, Despatch, 21 December 1838, Series 1, Vol. XX.

THE BACK STORY

1792 – 12 December: Governor Arthur Phillip RN returned to England after five (5) years of extremely stressful service as Britain’s first Governor of Australia (1788-1792). See: Phillip’s Algorithm

‘For the length of the interregnum [December 1792 – September 1795] the British government was greatly at fault. John Hunter, Australian Dictionary of Biography, J.J. Auchmuty

The Home Office failed to appoint an immediate successor so governance of the colony devolved to the military – the corrupt New South Wales ‘Rum’ Corps.     

‘No sooner had Governor Phillip left ye colony than I was convinced that the plan or measures of government were about to undergo an intire [sic] change’. [Atkins]

1792 – 15 December: The civil magistrates, within two days, received an order that their duty would in future be dispensed with, and from that time until your Excellency’s [Hunter’s] arrival [September 1795]…everything was conducted in a military manner’. Captain George Johnston to Governor John Hunter, cited William Foster, Journal Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 51, Part 3, 1965.

Major Grose, the Corps’ Commander, described as ‘unassertive, affable and easy-going’, was content to allow his greedy officers have their heads particularly; ‘the energetic Macarthur [who] became the real ruler of New South Wales’. op.cit.

The Atkin’s diary gives an insightful account of the British invaders and their guns, greed and grog- the tipping points of military rule – that changed forever ‘prospects [for] the Aborigines of New Holland’. 

‘Major Grose…has done more harm to this colony than it would be in the power of any govt. to do for many years…The more I consider the govt. of —  — the more it appears hostile not only to the British constitution but to ends for which all good government was instituted’. [Atkins – December 1794]

Major Grose, veteran of the American War, governed Australia from December 1792 until December 1794 when he departed for London. Captain William Paterson, Grose’s second-in-command, governed from December 1794 to September 1795.

‘We now have a commanding officer (Captain Wm. Patterson) for our Chief. I think it will not be approved of’. [Atkins – December 1794]

1795 – 21 March 1795: Captain Paterson having assumed command wrote to Home Secretary Dundas in London.

‘Having reason to expect the arrival of governor Hunter daily…I have made no alteration in the mode of carrying on the service which I found adopted at the Lieut.Governor’s [Grose] departure’. Captain Paterson, Administrator to Right Hon. Henry Dundas, 21 March 1795.

1795 – March, Sydney Cove: Brittania, a vessel chartered by officers of the New South Wales Corps on the say-so of Macarthur, a canny teetotaller sober among a sea of drunks, arrived at Sydney in March 1795 with 25,000 gallons of ‘firey Indian rum’.

‘We may expect Hunter in about 6 weeks….It is much lamented that the govr. [Hunter] does not arrive for every day adds to the debauchery and every other vice….The new settlement on the Hawkesbury is one continual scene of drunkeness.

It would be impossible to describe the scenes of villainy and infamy that passes at the Hawkesbury…a bottle of liquor for a bushell of corn and no questions asked is the common price’… since then drunkeness and robberys to a very allarming degree have taken place’. [Atkins – March 1795]

By 1795 over four hundred (400) ex-convicts, supported by the labour of serving prisoners, were farming ‘thirty miles along the banks on both sides of the Deerubin [Hawkesbury] river’. 

‘For the first twenty years, settlement in New South Wales was confined largely to the Cumberland Plain about Sydney….The Europeans explained  such [Aboriginal] resistance by referring to the Aborigines’ ‘Spirit of Animosity and Hostility’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

Local Dharug Aborigines, denied access to watering places, hunting grounds and winter yam fields were placed under extreme pressure. They mounted hit and run raids; ‘plundering the corn’ to feed their hungry families.

‘As if the invasion of their land would call for any other response but armed resistance’. Stanley. op.cit.

In early June 1795 Captain Paterson, like Grose also a wounded veteran of the American War, took a decision that compounded difficulties on the Hawkesbury. He sent a detachment of troops to the river., the increased fire-power saw sporadic raids escalate into ‘open war’

‘It appears the determined resolution of the military [Paterson] to support the Despotism of the Lt. Governor [Grose] it is now carried on in a higher degree than in his time. They seem to adopt the Idea that the Natives can be made slaves of…nothing can be more false….they are as free as the air and Governor Phillip’s conduct was highly approved of for reprobating that idea’. [Atkins – February 1795] See: Convict Transportation – The Hulks Act & How the Mindset of Slavery Came to Australia.

1795 – 7 June, Hawkesbury: Captain William Paterson; ‘I therefore sent a detachment of two subalterns and sixty privates of New South Wales to the river, as well to drive the natives to a distance, as for the protection of the settlers.

It gives me concern to have been forced to destroy any of these people, particularly as I have no doubt of their having been cruelly treated by some of the settlers who went out there’. Captain William Paterson to Right Hon. Henry Dundas,15th June 1795.

1795 – 7 September, Sydney: Governor John Hunter RN, Britain’s second commissioned naval Governor of Australia arrived in September three (3) months after Captain Paterson ordered the Hawkesbury raid.

‘On this day Govr. Hunter arrives. ‘How happy is it for this Colony that we have at last a Governor who will make the good of the community at large his particular care, abstracted from all party and dirty pecuniary views’. [Atkins, 7 September 1795]

Soon after he arrived Governor Hunter travelled to Parramatta to stay with Lieutenant John and Elizabeth Macarthur. For this Atkins had one word ‘Ominous’. 

Atkin’s fears were allayed when it became clear Governor Hunter was not deceived by John ‘MacMafia’ Macarthur the slick, get-rich-quick wheeler-dealer.

‘Arrived from Bengal the Brig Arthur laden with spirits, tobacco, sugar etc. A ship from Britain [Ceres] laden with salt and slops’. [Atkins – January 1796]

‘recd. information from Govr. [Hunter] that the Judge Advocate [David Collins] was going home and that I am to succeed him’. [Atkins – 12 February 1796]

It seems after Atkins took up his appointment as Judge-Advocate he was too busy to continue with his diary.

1810 – May: Richard Atkins returned to London on HMS Hindostan in company with ex-Governor William Bligh RN – Britain’s fourth naval governor. Bligh had earlier described Atkins ‘a disgrace to human jurisprudence’.

1820 – November, England: Richard Atkins died ‘insolvent’ nevertheless he has left Australia an invaluable asset. His diary exposes the ‘what’s -yours -is-mine’ attitude inherent in Britain’s ‘original aggression’.

It was a mind-set entrenched by two (2) lengthy periods of absolute military rule firstly 1792-1795 and again 1808-1810.  The ‘Rum Rebellion’ a coup instigated by John Macarthur, by then a civilian agitator. See: Australia Day ‘Rum’ Rebellion

‘In 1837 the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Aborigines (British Settlements) recommended that as the whole land had been taken from the Aborigines in New South Wales…[had ] yielded on sale upwards of hundred thousand pounds a year…’. Barry Bridges, Journal Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 56, Part 2, 1965

EPILOGUE

‘At the end of the period of British control over native affairs the Aborigines had no stake in the soil of their native land beyond a few small reserves, and perhaps, the right to limited trespass on leasehold land’. Bridges. op.cit.

1992: Australia’s High Court’s 1992 Mabo decision found ‘terra nullius’‘uninhabited’the founding doctrine of Britain’s ‘original aggression’ – to be ‘legal fiction’.

There was however a sting-in-the tail of the Mabo ruling; ‘Native Title will be extinguished where the traditional holders lose their connection to land’.

Although The First Nations’ Peoples were removed willy-nilly from their country whose boundaries had been fixed for millennia, The High Court took no account of forced removal.

‘Where traditional holders lose their connection to land’ led to decisions such as that of Judge Olney: ‘the right to the occupancy of this [Yorta Yorta] land….have been washed away by the tides of history’.

Continuing connection an ‘institutional [reminder] of Empire’ has resulted in competing claims and the development of what some First Australians describe as ‘Native Title warfare’.

‘To believe that Britain can forget its history, is to believe that Russians should not discuss the crimes of Stalin or Germans the crimes of Nazism. There is a need for a re-writing of history, for the purging of some guilt by its contemplation.

There is not yet in Britain any institutional reminder of the guilts of Empire; the builders of Empire are still the great men of the history texts, and monuments still stand to them in London’. Donald Horne, God is an Englishman, Pelican, 1969.

2019 – Brexit: As the Union of Great Britain appears on a slippery slide to disintegration it is time to take a forensic knife to: ‘the original aggression’  ‘effective occupation’, ‘forced removal’ ‘the tides of history’ ‘the builders of Empire’ ‘the guilts of Empire’. See:  A Continuing Connection – But When The Bough Breaks?

‘An effective resolution will require what the British required as long ago ago as 1768 ‘the consent of the natives’. G. Nettheim, Centre for Aboriginal Economic Policy Research, Monograph No. 7, May 1994, ed. W. Sanders, Australian National University, Goanna Press, 1994

 

ANALYSE THIS

Wednesday, February 7th, 2018

‘On 1 April 1776 [‘whereas the transportation of convicts to H.M. Colonies in America is found to be attended with various inconveniences’] Lord North moved to bring in a Bill to authorise for a limited time punishment, by hard labour, of offenders who were liable to transportation’. Wilfrid Oldham, Britain’s Convicts to the Colonies, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1993

1775- April, America: Conflict between England and her American colonies – the War of Independence (1775-1783) – brought a sudden halt to convict transportation to America.

‘Convict transportation in its original manifestation [Geo.1 C.11-23-29] was a uniquely American phenomenon.’ Anthony Vaver Bound With An Iron Chain, The Untold Story of How the British Transported 50,000 convicts to Colonial America, Pickpocket Publishing, 2011

England’s gaols, previously short-term holding pens for convicted criminals,reprieved death and commuted ‘for transportation to America’, were quickly overwhelmed.

During eight (8) years of conflict approximately 10,000 prisoners were held over.

1776 – 23 May, England: The Hulks Act – 16 Geo. III, c 43 – received Royal Assent on 23rd May 1776. Lord North’s Bill was a game-changer. It changed the status of prisoners sentenced ‘for transportation’.

The legislation introduced a legal distinction that applied only to those criminals reprieved death on condition they be ‘transported out of the realm…beyond the seas’. See: April Fools Day

Deemed ‘Servants of the Crown’ until expiry of the term of sentence, their ‘service’ was for the ‘nation’, thereby ensuring ‘its original [1717-18] manifestation [remained] ‘a uniquely American phenomenon’.

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‘TERROR’ – ARTHUR’S ALGORITHM – OPEN SESAME!

Wednesday, October 4th, 2017

‘The ability to shock bestows a kind of power’. Frances Larson, Severed, Granta, London, 2014

1790 – 13 December, Sydney Headquarters: Governor Arthur Phillip – General Orders to Marine Captain Watkin Tench: ‘Infuse universal terror…put ten [10] to death…cut off, and bring back the heads of the slain’. Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Year, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples can, with laser accuracy, plot their near annihilation from Governor Arthur Phillip’s orders of December 1790.

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

Where lay the threat to Governor Phillip in December 1790? Certainly not with the Bidjigal at Botany Bay cut down by smallpox. If not the Bidjigal who was Phillip ‘enemy’? See: A Clash of Giants – Arthur Phillip & John Macarthur – The Great Pretender

‘For the Sydney people to lose 50% or more of their military capability in a few weeks was a crushing blow’. Stephen Gapps, The Sydney Wars, NewSouth Books, 2018

The previous year (1789) smallpox had killed 50% of Sydney Aborigines leaving the survivors struggling to regroup. See: Smallpox – A Lethal Weapon Boston 1775, Sydney 1789 – Robert Ross and David Collins

1790 – 9  December, Botany Bay: ‘On the 9th of the month, a sergeant of marines, with three convicts…went out on a shooting party…to the north arm of Botany Bay…among them M’Entire, the governor’s game-keeper (the convict of whom Bannelon had, on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred)’. Tench. ibid. See: Manly – Location, Location, Location

1790 – 10 December, Botany Bay: At 1 am; ‘the serjeant was awakened by a rustling noise in the bushes’. Pemulwuy the Aboriginal warrior speared John M’Entire; ‘he expressed a longing desire not to be left to expire in the woods’. See: A Tethered Goat

1790 – 11 December, Sydney: Tench says the shooting party, with M’Entire in tow, reached Sydney in the early hours of 12 December 1790.

1790 – 13 December, Sydney: ‘I [Tench] received a direction to attend the governor at head quarters immediately’ where Governor Phillip issued his General Orders:

‘Put to death ten cut off and bring back the heads of the slain…two prisoners I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners who may be brought in, in the most public and exemplary manner, in the presence of as many of their countrymen as can be collected…and my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’.

Pemulwuy’s spearing of M’Entire was a targeted attack by a known assailant; ‘put ten [10] to death’ was indiscriminate retaliation – destroying the innocent as well as the guilty.

Tench registered shock; ‘here the governor stopped, and addressed himself to me said, if I could propose any alternation of the orders under which I was to act’.

Tench proposed; ‘capture six [6]…a part should be set aside for retaliation; and the rest, at a proper time, liberated, after seeing the fate of their comrades. This scheme, his excellency was pleased instantly to adopt, adding, if six [6] cannot be taken, let this number [6] be shot’.

1790 – 13 December: Tench ordered his troops, fifty (50) men – two (2) officers with the regulation ratio of non-commissioned to forty (40) private soldiers; ‘be ready to go out tomorrow morning at daylight [14th] with three [3] days provisions, ropes to bind our prisoners with and hatchets and bags, to cut off and contain the heads of the slain’.  See: A Hatchet Job – Heads Off The Bidgigal of Botany Bay

For Australia’s First Peoples the make-up of this detachment is of utmost importance. By December 1790 marines of the ‘troubled’ Sydney garrison were incapable of sustained effort.

‘The main battle was about having enough to eat’. Don Watson, Story of Australia, 1984

All of ‘Phillip’s people’ had been marooned since 1788. The marines suffered profound lethargy from prolonged semi-starvation, most could barely stand let alone undertake a three (3) days march in full kit under a blazing December sun. See: Abandoned and Left To Starve at Sydney Cove January 1788 to June 1790

1790 – 14 December, Sydney:  So it is certain, when the section moved out for Botany Bay on the 14th of December 1790, the majority of its forty (40) rank and file would have been infantrymen of the New South Wales Corps who, in June 1790, arrived from England to relieve the beleaguered marines. See: Dark Matter

The newly arrived foot troops were first contingent of; ‘twenty-five regiments of British infantry they participated in the great struggle at the heart of the European conquest of this continent’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

‘There are two kinds of error; those of commission, doing something that should not be done, and those of omission, not doing something that should be done, the latter are much more serious than the former’. Kenneth Hoper and William Hopper, The Puritan Gift, Forward, Russell Lincoln Ackoff, I.B. Tauris, 2009.

1792 –  12 December, Sydney: Governor Phillip sailed for home in mid December 1792. Tragically for the First Australians London failed to commission a successor. Captain John Hunter RN, the second governor, would not reach Sydney until September 1795.

‘For the length of the interregnum [1792-1795] the British government was greatly at fault’. J.J. Achmuty, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Governor John Hunter.

‘Omission’ by default the immense power invested in Arthur Phillip as Governor of New South Wales, said to be unique in Britain’s long history of empire building, devolved to the military.

‘Convince them of our superiority’; there is no evidence Governor Phillip’s orders of December 1790 were ever countermanded. Extant, they served as a template that went onto govern all future confrontations between the British invaders and Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples.

1792 – 13 December: The day following Phillip’s departure Major Francis Grose commanding officer of the New South Wales Corps took control of the colony. He dismissed the civil magistrates appointed by Governor Phillip as required by official Letters Patent.

‘The traffic in spirits was commenced by the officers and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Historical Records of Australia.

Grose, wounded in the American War of Independence 1775-1783, proved a lackadaisical commander. He appointed Lieutenant John Macarthur paymaster.

‘The control of labour was largely vested in his new regimental pay-master, Lieutenant John Macarthur – a central figure in the military mafia which quickly established itself as Australia’s first governing and property-owing elite’. Arthur Phillip, Gentleman, Scholar and Seaman, Dr. Nigel Rigby, Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Dr. Pieter Van der Merwe, British National Maritime Museum, Prof. Emeritius History, Queen Mary, University of London, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London, 2018

For the next twenty-five (25) years ‘frontier war, nasty and decidedly lacking in glorycentred on Aboriginal river lands, the Deerrubin – Hawkesbury, Nepean and Grose River systems.

When Major Grose returned to England at the of 1794 Captain William Paterson, another physically and emotionally damaged ‘three bottles a day’ veteran of the American Revolutionary War succeeded him.

By 1794 over four hundred (400) settlers were farming Dharug; ‘thirty miles along the banks on both sides of the [Hawkesbury] River it has been estimated that between 1794 and 1800 at least twenty-six [26] Whites and up to two hundred [200] Aborigines were killed’. Stanley. ibid.

1795 – June, Hawkesbury:  Governor Hunter was still on the high seas when Paterson; ‘sent a detachment of two [2] subalterns and sixty [60] privates of the New South Wales to the river…to destroy as many as they could…a well to drive the natives to a distance, as for the protections of the settlers.

It gives me concern to have been forced to destroy any of these people, particularly as I have no doubt of their having been cruelly treated by some of the settlers who went out there’. Captain William Paterson to Right Hon. Henry Dundas, 15 June 1795, Historical Records of Australia. See: A Worm Hole – Richard Atkins Diary

The troops Paterson deployed to the Hawkesbury saw limited skirmishes escalate to ‘open warfare’ accelerating destruction of the Dharug whose spears, guts, and guile could not match the increased fire-power.

1795 – September: Governor John Hunter RN reached Sydney in late September 1795. Despite John Macarthur’s spirited antagonism directed at him the new governor managed to restore what passed for ‘English civil law’ in New South Wales.

1799 – March, Sydney: Four (4) years later Governor Hunter ordered ‘five [5] European] men changed with the murder of two [2] native boys’.

Lieutenant Neil MacKellar, in command at the Hawkesbury from 1797 to 1799, was called to give evidence in court.

‘Under questioning he stated that the orders issued [1795] for the destruction of Aboriginals whenever encountered, after they had committed outrages, had not been countermanded during his command at the Hawkesbury nor to his knowledge since’. Neill Mackellar, Australian Dictionary of Biography, Brigadier M. Austin

1799 – London: While the trial was in progress Hunter was informed of his recall to England. The reasons given were twofold. He had failed to stop the importation of ‘fiery Indian rum’ imported from Bengal and he did not to get along with the military thugs of the New South Wales ‘Rum’ Corps.

‘The traffic in spirits was commenced by the officers and was destined to be the chief factor which savaged the undercurrent of public life for twenty-five years after the departure of Governor Phillip’. Commentary, Records. ibid.

Teetotaller John Macarthur was prime mover in the importation of rum from Bengal. Rum bought cheaply and, sold at an exorbitant mark-up, generated immense profits for certain officers of the ‘Rum’ Corps and their cronies.

When the ex-convicts who bought their rum went broke the officers who sold it to them were on hand to buy up their farms.

From 1788 there had been continuous disputation between the civil power represented by the autocratic uniformed naval governors and the military’. John McMahon, Not a Rum Rebellion but a Military Insurrection, Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. 92, 2006

Lieutenant John ‘McMafia’ Macarthur was the common denominator in the recall to London of Governor Phillip’s immediate successors, the naval Governors, John Hunter, Phillip Gidley King and William Bligh.

And when he returned from a lengthy forced exile in England Macarthur was just in time to add a practised hand in the character assassination of Governor Lachlan Macquarie, the first British Governor recruited from military ranks.

1800 – Sydney: Governor Hunter was replaced by Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King, who like Hunter was another First Fleeter returning ‘home’ to Australia. See: Down the Rabbit Hole with Hunter

1800-1806: See: The Irish & the English King in Australia.

1806 – August 1806: Governor William Bligh RN arrived in Sydney orders for Governor Phillip Gidley King’s recall. See: Down The Rabbit Hole with King

1808 – 26 January, Sydney: When ‘Bounty’ Bligh made strenuous effort to stem the tsunami of grog he too found himself under attack from Macarthur. On the 20th anniversary of Captain Arthur Phillip’s raising of the Union Jack Governor Bligh was taken arrested by the New South Wales Corps. See: Australia Day Rebellion – Australia Day 1808

EPILOGUE

 ‘The natives will be made severe examples of whenever any man is wounded by them….and my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’. Governor Phillip, cited Tench. ibid

Governor Phillip General Orders of 13th and ‘differing in no respect from the last‘ were repeated on 22 December 1790. The second raid triggered an algorithm for ‘future terror’ that ‘lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth century’. Kercher. ibid.

 

A map detailing ‘the better documented’ massacres of ‘dissenting Aboriginal’ Australians from the 1790s – to the 1920s was published in 2017

 

1816 – April, Appin: The first to meet the criteria of fourteen (14) known killed occurred in Macarthur country at Broughton Pass in April 1816. Governor Lachlan Macquarie’s orders of 10 April are eerily similar to those of Governor Arthur Phillip in December 1790.in lock-step with

 

The ‘The warrior skilled at stirring the enemy proffers the bait’. Sun-Tzu, The Art of War, Penguin Books, 2009 

See: Mc Intyre – Death of a Sure Thing

 

1816: Appin:

 

 

 

 

 

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THREE AMIGOS + ONE – THOMAS BARRETT

Tuesday, June 13th, 2017

‘The grand consideration seems to be, to get them [convicted criminals] out of Europe at all Events…simply landing these people in Africa., to let them shift for themselves’. Governor Richard Miles, Cape Coast Castle to Home Office, London. Cited in Mollie Gillen, Founders of Australia, Library of Australian History.

1781 – 30 May, London: Samuel Woodham and John Rugless, then aged about 16 years – described in court papers as ‘boys’ – appeared at the Old Bailey indicted for assault and highway robbery.

Found guilty of stealing a silver shirt buckle, a cotton handkerchief and 14 (fourteen) shillings in coin both were sentenced to hang. Reprieved and commuted for a life-time of military service in Africa they were lodged in London’s infamous Newgate gaol to await shipment.

1782 – 8 October, Westminster:  Thomas Limpus appeared at the General Quarter Sessions charged with theft of a handkerchief. Found guilty he was sentenced to seven (7) years exile in Africa.

Biographical information taken from Mollie Gillen’s Founders of Australia. (more…)

AFRICA: IN AND OUT OF AFRICA – THOMAS LIMPUS, JOHN RUGLESS, SAMUEL WOODHAM

Tuesday, June 13th, 2017

It is natural to infer that Government understands it is simply landing these people in Africa, to let them shift for themselves, and get their Board in the best manner they can’. Richard Miles, Cape Coast Castle to Home Office, London.

1782 – 6 November, England: Government chartered the Den Keyser to transport forty (40) or so criminals reprieved death from England to Senegal on Africa’s west coast.

They were to serve sentences of seven (7), fourteen (14) years or life at the fort settlements of Goree and Cape Coast Castle.

In 1644 the English established a permanent foot-hold on West Africa when its  forces captured Cape Coast Castle, the main Dutch base in West Africa,captured from the Dutch during the third Anglo-Dutch War.

Convicts Samuel Woodham and John Rugless were destined for a life-time of military service. Civilian prisoners like Thomas Limpus; reprieved to be ‘banished from this realm’ were to be dumped and left to ‘shift for themselves’.

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A TALE OF TWO FLEETS

Tuesday, May 30th, 2017

JANUARY 1788 – THE ‘FIRST FLEET’ – AN INVASION FLEET MORTALITY – 4%

‘In writing of the recruitment of criminals into the armed forces, Stephen Conway observed, ‘It was still found necessary periodically to clear both the putrid and congested gaols and the equally overcrowded and insanitary hulks’. Conway, cited in Alan Frost, Botany Bay Mirages, Melbourne University Press, 1994.

Between January 1787 and mid-May 1787 a large squadron of eleven (11) ships, known in Britain and Australia as the ‘First Fleet’, assembled at Portsmouth, England.

One-half of the complement, 1500 souls, were convicted criminals. Many of its 570 male convicted criminals taken from ‘overcrowded and insanitary hulks’.

‘In determining the daily ration no distinction was drawn between marines and [male] convicts…the standard adopted was that of troops serving in the West Indies’. Wilfrid Oldham, Britain’s Convicts to the Colonies, Library of Australian History, 1993

1787 – 13 May, England: The ‘First Fleet’ sailed from Portsmouth on 13 May 1787, to invade the island continent of New Holland. Commanded by Captain Arthur Phillip RN. This combined military and naval expeditionary force was fully funded by the British Government.  See: Apollo 11 – Fly Me To The Moon: Portsmouth – Tenerife – Rio  – Cape Town – Botany Bay – Sydney Cove.

I stark contrast to their treatment on the hulks or in England’s ‘putrid gaols’, the convicts were well fed and exercised. Mortality on the ‘First Fleet was reckoned at 4%.

Britain’s move on New Holland followed closely on the loss of her ’empire in the west’. There can be little doubt ‘the exact purpose[s] of the settlement’ was driven by Britain’s profound humiliation following her defeat at the hands of both French regular forces and America’s Patriot militia.

The Treaty Of Versailles signed in September 1783 brought an end to the War of American Independence (1775-83). England’s thirteen (13) former colonies New York, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Maryland, Georgia, North and South Carolina, Delaware, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia were formally recognised as the United States of America.

‘In November [1784] Henry Dundas, possibly Pitt’s closest advisor, warned that ‘India’ is the first quarter to be attacked, we must never lose sight of keeping such a force there as well be sufficient to baffle or surprise’. Dundas, cited Michael Pembroke, Arthur Phillip Sailor Mercenary Governor Spy, Harper Grant Books, Victoria, 2013

The loss of her American colonies fuelled a fierce determination to reset the strategic, territorial and trade balance of power via dominance of secure safe alternate sea routes to and from India and China.

‘I need not enlarge on the benefit of stationing a large body of troops in New South Wales…New Holland is a blind, then, when we want to add to the military strength of India’. Anon. Historical Records of New South Wales.

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