Author Archive

A ‘NASTY WAR’ & A WALL OF SILENCE

Friday, April 3rd, 2020

‘During the period 1763 and 1793 the character of the Second British Empire was being formed…the empire of commerce in the Indian and Pacific Oceans…once more the discoveries of Captain Cook were influencing the direction of Britain’s overseas expansion’. Vincent T. Harlow, Founding of the Second British Empire 1763-1793, Vol. II, 1964.

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‘After an absence of 219 days [2 October 1788 to 8 May 1789] – 51 of which lay in Table Bay Cape of Good Hope, so that, although during the[Sirius] voyage we had fairly gone around the world, we had only been 168 days in describing that circle…makes it [Port Jackson] an important Post, should it ever be necessary to carry…war in those seas…[Pacific] Coast of Chile and Peru’.  John Hunter, Historical Journal of the Transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island, 1793, 2008 ed.

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London – 1786, October 12:  ‘We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, and experience in military affairs, do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be said Governor of our territory called New South Wales…from the Northern extremity… Cape York…to the Southern extremity…South Cape’. His Majesty King George III to our trusted and well-loved Captain Arthur Phillip, 12 October 1786.

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BREXIT THE CROWN & CONTINUING CONNECTION

Sunday, February 9th, 2020

Sydney Cove – 7 February, 1788: ‘We have come today to take possession of this fifth great continental division of the earth on behalf of the British people. I do not doubt that this country will prove the most valuable acquisition Great Britain ever made’. Governor Arthur Phillip RN, Historical Records of New South Wales, Vol.1

The island continent of New Holland, now Australia, was seized by force of arms in 1788.

Captain-General Governor Arthur Phillip RN on the 7th of February 1788 proclaimed ‘British Sovereignty’ over New Holland from ‘Cape York in the most northern extremity to the southern extremity… South Cape’.

The First Peoples did not give consent, nor was a treaty entered into. It remains to be done.

‘To seize from its original occupants all their symbols and monuments, probably forms the most enduring injury which one group of people can inflict upon another’. C.D. Rowley, The Destruction of Aboriginal Society, Penguin, 1974

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G – FOR GENDER

Saturday, December 19th, 2015

Whitehall – 1786, 8 August: ‘His Majesty [King George 111] has thought advisable to fix upon Botany Bay…to form a military establishment [with] two companies of marines. Orders [were] issued for the transportation of six hundred and eighty [680] males and seventy [70] female convicts to New South Wales’. Lord Sydney Home Secretary to Treasury.   

London – 1786, August: An unsigned ‘Heads of a Plan for effectually disposing of convicts [and] the establishment of a colony in New South Wales’ was circulated via the Home Office to Treasury and the Admiralty

‘Without a sufficient proportion of that [female] sex it is well known that it would be impossible to preserve the settlement from gross irregularities and disorders’. Heads of a Plan for  Botany Bay, Historical Records of New South Wales, Vol. 1. Parts 1 & 2

Between 1788 to 1868 Britain transported 163,000 convicted criminals to Australia. Only 25,000 were women. Of these 12,595 went directly to Tasmania.

Between 1858 and 1868 West Australia, an embryonic white settlement, received 10,000 male and zero female prisoners. Hougoumont, the last convict transport, reached Fremantle in 1868 with two hundred and eighty (280) convicted criminals.

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G – IS FOR TESTOSTERONE FUELLED GENOCIDE

Friday, December 18th, 2015

‘It is well known…without a sufficient proportion of that [female] sex…it would be impossible to preserve the settlement from gross irregularities and disorders…HMS Supply…may be employed in conveying to the new settlement a further number of women from the Friendly islands, New Caledonia etc…from whence any number may be procured without difficulty’.  Home Office, Heads of a Plan for Botany Bay.

London –  1786, August 8 August:‘His Majesty [George III] has thought advisable to fix upon Botany Bay’.

1786-1868:  During the period 1786 to 1868 Britain transported approximately 163,000 convicted criminals to New Holland, now Australia. Only  25,000 were women. One-half of these 12,500 went directly to Van Diemens Land now Tasmania.

West Australia: Between 1858 and 1868 the embryonic white settlement in the west, where transportation ended in 1868, received ten thousand (10,000) male criminals and zero (0) women prisoners.

‘Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethical, racial or religious group, such as;

killing members of the group; causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;

deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part;

imposing measures intending to prevent births within the group;

transferring children of the group to another group’. Article 2, United Nations 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide.

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ARTHUR PHILLIP – HUNG OUT TO DRY

Tuesday, October 6th, 2015

June 1790: In which long time no supplies [from England] had reached us. From the intelligence of our friends and connections we had been entirely cut off, no communication whatever having passed with our native country since the 13th May, 1787, the day of our departure from Portsmouth’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson,1961.

1790  – 3 June, Sydney: When on 3 June 1790  Lady Juliana with ‘London on her stern’ sailed into Sydney Harbour three (3) years had passed since a large convoy of eleven (11) English ships, known in Britain and Australia as the  ‘First Fleet’, sailed from Portsmouth, England bound for Botany Bay, New Holland.

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INVASION 1788 – A GLOBAL CONTEXT

Wednesday, July 15th, 2015

‘Once more the discoveries of Captain Cook were influencing the direction of Britain’s overseas expansion’. Vincent T. Harlow, Founding of the Second British Empire, 1763-1793, Vol. 2, Longmans, 1964

1763 – 1793: A collision of external and internal circumstances determined New Holland to be the lynch-pin of thatSecond British Empire’. Together they led to the invasion of the island continent and the near destruction of its Indigenous First Peoples.

The American Revolution A World War. Ed. David K. Allison & Larrie D. Ferreiro, Smithsonian, Books Washington, DC

What drove Britain to invade?

Externally the War of American Independence (1775-1783) and the loss of her ’empire in the west’. The humiliation of that defeat, that had been only made possible by the vast amounts of men, money and munitions France supplied Washington’s Patriot home-spun militia, made further conflict between Britain and France inevitable.

Internally the threat of revolution epitomised by the devastating Gordon Riots of 1780; impending abolition of slavery, an avalanche of homeless starving unemployed paupers, rising street crime together with an army of convicted criminals 10,000 strong, confined since 1775 on prison-hulks, moored along the River Thames at the very heart of London.

1786 – 2 August, London: An attempt was made to assassinate King George III in early August 1786 served as a trigger point that led directly to the invasion of far-off New Holland and sealed the fate of a free people – Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples.

1786 – 26 August, Westminster. Three (3) weeks after the failed assassination attempt King George, at the State opening of Parliament, announced his government’s decision to dispatch a large armed expeditionary force of eleven (11) ships, the ‘First Fleet’, into the ‘imperfectly explored’ southern oceans.

‘In determining the daily ration no distinction was drawn between the [245] marines and the [583 male ]convicts…the standard adopted was that of the troops serving in the West Indies’. Wilfrid Oldham, Britain’s Convicts to the Colonies, Library of Australian History, Sydney 1990

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ARTHUR PHILLIP AND “RULE 303”

Tuesday, June 30th, 2015

1790 – 11 December, Sydney Cove: ‘Put ten [10] to death…bring in the heads of the slain…bring away two [2] prisoners…I am resolved to execute the prisoners…in the most public and exemplary manner’. General Orders, Governor Arthur Phillip RN to Marine Captain Watkin Tench. Cited in Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

1889 – April 3, United Kingdom: Judicial Committee of the Privy Council; Lord Watson, Lord Fitzgerald, Lord Hobhouse, Lord MacNaghton, Sir William Grove, Cooper V Stuart [1889] 14 AC ruled; ‘it [New South Wales] was peacefully annexed to the British Dominion’.

1790 – December: ‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries…These raids had commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

Australia’s First Peoples can, with laser accuracy, plot their near annihilation from the raids of December 1790; ‘as if the invasion of their land would call for any other response but armed resistance’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

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INVASION 1788 – ‘ENGLAND WON AUSTRALIA BY SIX DAYS’ BUT ‘NOT A HINT OF IT SHALL EVER TRANSPIRE’ NT OF IT SHALL EVER TRANSPIRE’

Tuesday, December 2nd, 2014

‘Once again it was [Captain James] Cook’s fate to bring disaster in his wake’. Allan Moorehead, The Fatal Impact, Penguin, 1971

Britain invaded New Holland but; ‘not a hint of it shall ever transpire’.

‘It seems clear that only a few men in the inner circle of [Younger Pitt’s] government knew the exact purposes of the [Botany Bay] settlement; Eden [William Eden later Lord Auckland] was probably not in that secretive circle’. Professor Geoffrey Blainey, Gotham City, The Founding of Australia, The Arguments about Australia’s origins. Ed. Ged Martin, Hale and Iremonger, 1978

Prime Minster William Pitt’s ‘secretive circle’, Lord Hawkesbury, Lord Mulgrave and Henry Dundas, men Australia commemorates and whose names are familiar to Sydney-siders.

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A TALE OF TWO CITIES: 1759 QUEBEC, NEW FRANCE & 1788 SYDNEY, NEW HOLLAND – CAPTAIN JAMES C00K AND LOUIS ANTIONE DE BOUGAINVILLE

Sunday, September 21st, 2014

‘Pitt’s  [Seven Years ] war strategy set the pattern of colonisation for the next one hundred years’. Vanessa Collingridge, Captain Cook, Ebury Press, 2003.

1788 – Australia: Britain’s invasion of New Holland, now Australia, must be seen in context of the Elder Pitt’s ‘war strategy’.  In reality ‘one hundred years’ of war and conquest 1763 – 1868.

‘The decision to colonise New South Wales cannot be isolated from the strategic imperatives of the world’s first truly global struggle, the Seven Years’ War (1757-63)’.  Jeffrey Grey, A Military History of Australia, Third Ed. Cambridge University Press, 2008

The North American theatre of the Seven Years’ War (1756 – 1763) saw Lieutenant James Cook RN distinguish himself as a talented mathematician, a brave navigator and exceptional map-maker.

‘It was on that expedition that Cook first learned from a British army officer [ Samuel Holland] how to make maps….He mastered the technique of translating the three [3 ] dimensions of landmarks, shores, rocks and shoals precisely and exactly onto two [2] dimensional charts’. Arthur Herman, To Rule The Waves, Hodder and Stoughton, 2005

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SHOCK AND AWE – ‘INFUSE UNIVERSAL TERROR’ ‘MY MEN HEARD A CHILD CRY’

Saturday, September 20th, 2014

Sydney Cove – 1790 June 1 : ‘We had now been [thirty-six] months from England in which long period …we had been entirely cut off, no communication whatever having passed with our native country since the 13th May, 1787, the day of our departure from Portsmouth.

Here on the summit of the hill, every morning from daylight until the sun sunk, did we sweep the horizon, in hope of seeing a sail…at every fleeting speck which arose from the bosom of the sea, the heart bounded’. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. L.F. Fitzhardige, Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1961

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Sydney – 1790, June 3: ‘Great change came with the  Second Fleet of the first companies of the New South Wales Corps.[among them] Lieutenant John Macarthur  – a central figure in the military ‘mafia’ which quickly established itself as Australia’s first governing and property owning elite’. Nigel Rigby, Peter Van Der Merwe & Glyn Williams, National Maritime Museum Greenwich, Pacific Explorations, Voyages of Discovery from Captain Cook’s Endeavour to the Beagle, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, 2018

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Sydney Headquarters – 1790,  December 13:  ‘The governor pitched upon me [Tench] to execute the…command…those natives who reside  near the head of Botany Bay….put ten [10] to death…bring in the heads of the slain [and] two [2] prisoners to  execute in the most most public and exemplary manner;…my fixed determination to repeat it, whenever any future breach of good conduct on their side, shall render it necessary’.  His Excellency Governor Arthur Phillip RN, General Orders to Marine Captain Watkin Tench

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