AN UGLY WAR – BRITAIN VERSUS ‘THE OTHER’

‘Phillip was authorised to see to the defence of the colony…Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted  from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries…These raids had commenced by December 1790′. Professor Bruce Kercher, History of Law in Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1995

2016 – September, Manly Beach:  FAKE NEWSROAD RAGE – This morning violence broke out on the Harbour and Spit Bridges. Cars were caught in giant grid-lock as Sydney-siders rushed to Manly where a whale – as big as a bus – had beached itself on the sand.

1790 – September, Manly: Real news – excited Aborigines gathered and Englishmen, Governor Phillip was rowed over from Sydney, to marvel at ‘a tremendous monster’ that had washed up at Manly.

The stranding would prove a tipping point in the near annihilation of a free people, Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples. See: Arthur’s Algorithm – ‘infuse universal terror’ open – sesame

1790 – 7 September, Manly Beach: Governor Phillip had began his naval career harpooning whales in Arctic waters. Now armed with a bottle or two of fine French reds and, a dagger and pistol, he was rowed across to Manly for a viewing.

There he met up with Bennalong who, on Phillip’s orders the previous year November 1789, had been kidnapped and held prisoner within British lines. He spent six (6) months in captivity until May 1790 when he leapt over a fence and escaped. See: Kidnapped – Manly What’s In A Name

Tench sets the scene; ‘the governor] uncorked a bottle, and poured out a glass of it, which the other [Bennelong] drank off with his former marks of relish and good humour, giving for a toast, as he had been taught “the King”. Marine Captain Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, ed. F.L. Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961 

Meanwhile a group of ‘the other’Aborigines – stood a little way off watching this strange pantomime; ‘a native [Wileemarin] ‘with a spear in his hand came forward. His excellency held out his hand…advancing towards him…the nearer, the governor approached, the greater became the terror and agitation of the Indian. 

To remove his fear [of kidnap] governor Phillip threw down a dirk, he wore at this side…the other alarmed at the rattle of the dirk…and probably misconstruing the action, instantly fixed his lance, aimed [it] with such force and dexterity striking the governor’s right shoulder, just above the collar bone’. See: Manly Location, Location, Location

Wileemarin’s spear had penetrated Phillip’s right shoulder and exited at his back and could not be extracted on the spot. He endured three (3) agonising hours as he was rowed across the harbour’s choppy waters to Sydney where senior surgeon William Balmain removed it.

Phillip had lost a great deal of blood so recovery was slow. Knowing in throwing ‘down the dirk’ he had contributed to Willeemrin’s attack Phillip ordered there be no reprisals.

It was a decision that had vast unintended consequences.

Enter the lists Lieutenant John Macarthur a junior officer of the newly arrived New South Wales Corps. The first contingent, one hundred and fifteen (115) officers and men, had arrived in June 1790 with the second fleet ‘Britain’s Grim Armada’. See: A Tale of Two Fleets

‘Macarthur’s haughty quarrelsome nature which manifested itself on the voyage was to provoke much more conflict after his arrival in New South Wales in June 1790’. Michael Flynn, The Second Fleet, Britain’s Grim Armada of 1790, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1993

THE BACK STORY

1790 – January 20, London: ‘I am commanded to signify to you the King’s pleasure that directions be immediately given for the embarkation of the corps raised for service in New South Wales and commanded by Major Grose’. London,Right Hon.W.W. Grenville, to the Secretary of War, 20 January 1790, Historical Records of New South Wales

Major Francis Grose remained in London to recruit sufficient men to satisfy establishment requirements. But with the French Revolution  raging across the Channel and talk of imminent war with France recruitment proved difficult. To make up numbers Grose sourced ‘derelicts and delinquents’ from London’s Savoy military prison.

Meantime at Sydney Lieutenant Macarthur, a ruthless opportunist whose personal ambition knew no bounds, was quick to take advantage of both Grose’s absence and dissension among officers of the first contingent.

Certain Corps’ officers’ led by Macarthur saw Phillip’s ‘no retaliation’ as weakness. They honed in on the ailing Governor who was now without any naval support and completely isolated in the midst of a hostile soldiery. See: Missing in Action – HMS Sirius, HMS Supply

Phillip, known for his insight, could not have failed to recognise a dangerous enemy in Macarthur. He assessed, an already palpable threat to his position as Supreme Commander, had escalated from at risk to imminent, at stake;‘our territory called New South Wales’.

‘New Holland is a good blind, then, when we want to add to military strength of India. Anon, Historical Records of New South Wales

Phillip knew of Prime Minister William PItt’s ambitions. The strategic benefit of Britain’s supremacy over an alternate sea-route to India and Asia.

The ‘station[ing] a large body of troops in New South Wales’ would be lost if such a dynamic was not contained. Records. ibid.

‘That the fighting against France in what was originally and essentially a European war should have spread so swiftly to the tropics was a result of many factors, most of them predictable’. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery, Fontana Press, 3rd ed. London 1976

‘Predictable’ global warfare shaped the destiny of this nation’s First Peoples. Britain’s occupation of New Holland during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars 1793 – 1815 assured Britain control of alternate strategic and logistical sea-routes to and from India and Asia. See: A Band of Brothers and Mortal Enemies

‘Parallel to, and dependent upon, the Anglo-French duel for command of the sea went their struggle for overseas bases and colonies; here too, the culminating point in a century-long race was reached, with Britain emerging in 1815 with a position so strengthened that she appeared to be the only real colonial power in the world.’ Kennedy. Op. Cit.

‘Phillip was authorised to see to the defence of the colony’.

That authorisation applied from whom-so-ever such threat arose. Phillip a proven strategist, intent on saving the Sydney settlement from insurrection and anarchy moved to assert his authority. He had only arrow in his quiver – intelligence – and that intelligence had come from Bennelong. See: John Macarthur The Great Pretender & Treasure Island

During Bennalong’s six (6) months as a captive he often dined with the Governor and spoke of the ‘dread and hatred’ local Aborigines felt for convict John M’Entire. This was the intelligence Phillip used to take off the heat; create a diversion – emphasise a common enemy – ‘the other’.See: M’Entire – Death of a Sure Thing

Since 1788 official armed hunting parties of; ‘the best marksmen of marines and convicts’ had been essential to survival. On the 9 December 1790 such a party set off for Botany Bay to shoot kangaroo ‘among them was M’Entire’.

1790 – December 9, Botany Bay: ‘At dawn a serjeant of marines with three convicts, among them was M’Entire the governor’s game-keeper (the person of whom Bennalong had on former occasions, shewn so much dread and hatred) went out on a shooting party’.

1790 – December 10, Botany Bay: ‘About 1 am the serjeant was awakened by a rustling noise in the bushes supposing it to proceed from a kangaroo…two natives with spears one [Pemulwuy] launched is spear at M’Entire and lodged it in his side’. ‘Tench. ibid.

1790 – December 11, Sydney: The hunters returned to Sydney with the wounded M’Entire.

SNAP

1790 – December 12: ‘ I [Tench] received a direction to attend the governor at head quarters immediately…his excellency informed me…that we were, to put to death ten [10] cut off, and bring in the heads of the slain, for which purpose hatchets and bags would be furnished. 

If practicable, to bring away two [2] natives as prisoners…’I [Phillip] am resolved to execute the prisoners in the most public and exemplary manner’. Tench. ibid. See: Arthur’s Algorithm- ‘infuse universal terror’

1790 – 14 December: After some consultation between Phillip and Tench the scope of the orders were amended. When the detachment moved out Tench’s orders were; ‘bring in six [6] of those natives who reside near the head of Botany Bay; or if that should be found impracticable, to put that number to death’.

1790 – 17 DEcember: The first raid failed. The detachment returned with no prisoners or heads.

1790 – 22 December: Phillip’s General Orders of 14 December were repeated on the 22nd of December; ‘the orders under which I [Tench] was commanded to act differing in no respect from the last….if six cannot be taken let this number be shot’.

Governor Phillip’s orders of December 1790 – aimed at the enemy within – served as a template for Britain’s frontier war. A war characterised by Peter Stanley as ‘war…nasty and decidedly lacking in glory’. See: Sword and Word Both  Are Mighty

EPILOGUE

The troops sent to garrison the Australian colonies participated in the great struggle at the heart of the European conquest of this continent…They fought in one of the most prolonged frontier wars  in the history of the British empire, and for the first half of their stay were probably more frequently in action than the garrison of any other colony besides that of southern Africa’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army In Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

POST-SCRIPT

2017 – 16 September, Port Macquarie: A whale estimated to weigh 20 tonne washed up at Nobbey’s Beach on the mid-north coast of New South Wales.

An attempt to tow the ‘tremendous monster’ out to sea failed. In a decision ‘not taken lightly’ the animal was euthanased and buried. This solution saw locals deeply divided and after a good deal of argy-bargy the whale was dug up, cut up and disposed of by staff of the National Parks and Wildlife Service at a cost of $50,000 to the New South Wales Government.

 

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