Archive for March, 2018


Wednesday, March 21st, 2018


‘From time to time throughout history, peoples and governments around the world have used micro-organisms as efficient and cost-effective weapons of mass destruction. In 1763, in the earliest recorded deliberate release of a virus, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, British Commander-in-Chief in North America, authorized the distribution of smallpox-contaminated blankets to native Americans who were harassing European settlers around the garrison at Fort Pitt in Pennsylvania’. Professor Dorothy H. Crawford, The Invisible Enemy, Edinburgh University Press, 2000.

BRITAIN  & THE INDIAN WARS: Britain’s General Thomas Gage served as second-in-command to General Amherst during the Indian Wars and, was implicated in the distribution of blankets infected with smallpox, specifically among Indian tribes at Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh.

 ‘We gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital, I hope it will have the desired effect. “This act had the sanction of an impressive array of British officers, including Sir Jeffery Amherst, commander in chief at the time, and General Thomas Gage, who replaced Amherst and signed off on reimbursements for the “Sundries” used ” to convoy the Smallpox to the Indians”. Cited in Pox Americana: Professor Elizabeth A. Fenn, The Great Smallpox Epidemic of 1775-82, 2001



Wednesday, March 14th, 2018

‘From time to time throughout history, peoples and governments around the world have used micro-organisms as efficient and cost-effective weapons of mass destruction’. Professor Dorothy H. Crawford, The Invisible Enemy, Edinburgh University Press, 2000

1788 – 18 January, Botany Bay: At 2.15pm on 18 January 1788 HMS Supply, one (1) of a large armed convoy of eleven (11) ships known in Britain and Australia as the ‘First Fleet’ with a complement of 1500 souls (one-half convicted criminals) anchored in the entrance to Botany Bay, New Holland now Australia.

‘The main battle was about having enough to eat’. The Story of Australia, Don, 1984.

See: Abandoned and Left To Starve Sydney January 1788 to June 1790

When no supply ships came from England it became clear survival would depend on appropriating fish and crustacean, the local Aborigines’ primary source of protein.

During Sydney’s summer months fish was plentiful, HMS Sirius and Supply’s trawling nets were deployed daily, as much as ‘400 hundred weight of fish being taken up…’

Weeks passed to months and still no relief ships. Winter came fish was scarce, two (2) populations – one indigenous one introduced – competed with increasing hostility for the same resources.

1789 – April: ‘A smallpox epidemic struck the Aboriginal population round Sydney. Inexplicably, the epidemic did not affect the European population, but Phillip estimated that it resulted in the death of 50% of the local Aboriginal community. People of Australia, Macquarie Series, Ed. Bryce Fraser, 1998.

‘It is true, that our surgeons had brought out variolous (smallpox) matter in bottles’. Tench ibid.



Tuesday, March 6th, 2018

‘His [Phillip’s ] failure to invite the French commander [La Perouse] there [Sydney Cove] reflect some fear that he might be known as a spy.’ Alan Frost, Arthur Phillip 1783-1814 His Voyaging, 

Until quite recently it was generally held Arthur Phillip was ‘plucked from obscurity’ to command the ‘First Fleet’. But like ‘amity and kindness’, Australia’s foundation myth of benign colonisation, nothing could be further from the truth.

Brazil would prove to be the key to the success of the ‘First Fleet’ voyage and Phillip was very familiar with Brazil. A decade earlier he had served there seconded to the Portuguese Navy. Fluent in Portuguese, the good relations he built during the fours (4) years spent in Rio de Janerio, did much to ensure voyage’s success.



Tuesday, March 6th, 2018

‘This book is book is about the history of Britain…To write about this country without saying something about the West Indies and India, about Australia and Argentina is unreal’. Eric Hobsbawn, Industry and Empire, Vol. 3, 1750 to the Present Day, 1982

Just as unreal would be to write about modern Australian history without saying something about Britain.

1786 – 12 October, London: ‘And you [Phillip] are to observe and follow such orders and directions from time to time as you shall receive from us, or any other your superior officer according to the rules and disciplines of war.

We reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, and experience in military affairs, do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be said governor of our territory called New South Wales…from the Northern extremity of the coast called Cape York…to the Southern extremity…South Cape’. Instructions: King George III to Captain Arthur Phillip RN, Historical Records of New South Wales.

‘Amity and kindness’ our nation’s founding myth – benign colonisation – Monty Python’s ‘all things bright and beautiful’ is just that – myth.


‘The troops sent to garrison the Australian colonies participated in the great struggle at the heart of the European conquest of this continent…They fought in one of the most prolonged frontier wars in the history of the British Empire and for the first half of their stay were probably more frequently in action than the garrison of any other colony besides that of South Africa’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Sydney, 1986

1787 – May 13, Portsmouth: An armed convoy of eleven (11) ships with a complement of 1500 souls, one half convicted criminals 750 men – 193 women, commanded by Captain Arthur Phillip RN, known in Britain and Australia as the ‘First Fleet’, sailed from Portsmouth England for Botany Bay New Holland, now Australia.

‘In determining the daily ration no distinction was drawn between the marines and [male] convicts…the standard adopted was that of troops serving in the West Indies. Wilfrid Oldham, Britain’s Convicts To The Colonies, Library of Australian History, Sydney, 1993

1788 – January, 18/20 Botany Bay: The fleet arrived at Botany Bay within thirty-six (36) hours between 18-20 January 1788.

1788 – January, 24, Botany Bay: Two (2) French ships – La Boussole – Captain La Perouse and L’Astrolabe – Captain Clonard – appeared in the entrance to Botany Bay.

1788 – 25 January, Port Jackson: Captain Phillip aboard HMS Supply quit Botany Bay and sailed nine (9) miles (14km) north to Sydney Cove a safe anchorage deep within Port Jackson. There Phillip raised the Union Jack from a hastily erected flagstaff thereby claiming Britain had beaten France to the punch. See: Australia – Britain By A Short Half-Head  

1788 – 7 February, Sydney: ‘We have come today to take possession of this fifth great continental division of the earth on behalf of the British people. I do not doubt that this country will prove the most valuable acquisition Great Britain ever made’. Governor Arthur Phillip, Historical Records of New South Wales. 

On the 7th of February with all the ‘pomp and circumstance of glorious war’ Governor Arthur Phillip, as per instructions, claimed British sovereignty over ‘our territory called New South Wales…from the Northern extremity of the coast called Cape York…to the Southern extremity…South Cape‘.