STEALING STUFF

April 7th, 2020

‘Since the Age of Elizabeth 1, the British had had global ambitions in which possession of Central America offered the prospect of opening a path between the Atlantic and Pacific’. Andrew Jackson O’Shaughnessy, The Men Who Lost America, Yale University Press, New Haven, London 2013

Spainish South America: From the time of Tudor Elizabeth 1558-1603, despite determined efforts by the Queen’s buccaneers – Sir Jack Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh – England had failed to oust Spain from her conquered territories, strung tantalisingly along the Pacific and Atlantic Coasts of South America.

England: To fill Elizabeth’s dwindling coffers Treasury came to rely on loot taken at the point of the sword by swarms of English pirates as they hit ‘treasure laden  galleon’s en-route to Spain from Peru, Panama and Chile.

New Holland: When the ‘First Fleet’ sailed from Portsmouth for New Holland in May 1787 Governor Captain Arthur Phillip RN had with him ‘secret plans’ to attack Spain’s fabled ‘treasure’ colonies in Central and Southern America. See: Botany Bay – Lord Sydney, Arthur Philip & ‘Hush’ Christopher Robin’ Mark 2

London: The plans were Phillip’s own, drawn up in 1782 at the behest of Thomas Townshend Lord Sydney, the newly minted Home Secretary, while Britain was actively involved in the American War of Independence 1775-1783. See: Monte Video – Lord Sydney, Arthur Phillip & ‘Hush’ Christopher Robin’ Mark 1 

Jamaica: Phillip’s ‘secret‘ plan had it genesis in the failed 1779 San Juan Expedition the brain-child of John Dalling the military Governor of Jamaica.

Canada: In the Seven Years’ War 1756-63 Governor Dalling served under General James Wolfe. Wounded while scaling the Heights of Abraham from where the British bombarded General Joseph Montcalm’s men camped on the Plains below, Dalling was present when Britain captured Quebec from the French in 1759

No doubt driven by past glory in 1779 Dalling devised a plan to attack Spanish Nicaragua.  If successful he hoped to break Spain’s domination of Central and South America.

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New Holland +Britain + Independent America + India + France + Spanish South America = European Australia

April 7th, 2020

‘As for India, it had to remain a strategical back-water while Britons had their backs to the wall in so many other vital theatres. The interventions of the French navy, in the Channel, off Gibraltar, in the West Indies, off Yorktown, had clearly played a considerable part in Britain’s failure to win the war in America’. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery, 3rd ed. Fontana Press, 1991 

Whitehall :Lord George Germain, Secretary of State for America since 1775 the beginning of America’s War of Independence (1775-83, despite General Charles Cornwallis’ defeat at Yorktown October 1781,spied from his vantage point in far-off London ‘a clear vision of victory’.

A Dictionary of British History, Secker & Warburg, edited by J.P. Kenyon.

Germain’s ‘vision of victory’ was based on many factors. Among them; .’rumours Vermont would declare for the British‘ – George Washington’s Continental Army was ‘on the verge of collapse....good reason to believe that France and Spain might end their involvement in the war’. Andrew Jackson O’Shaunghnessy, The Men Who Lost America, Yale University Press, New Haven, London. 2013 

Germain was wrong. Even after Britain’s disastrous defeat at Yorktown, a smallpox epidemic, a bitter winter, shortage of ammunition and  food, he urged Parliament continue a now manifestly un-winnable war.

‘Wthout the direct intervention of Britain’s adversaries, France and Spain, on America’s side, the colonies could not [have] hope[d] to prevail against the superior British army and navy to win their independence outright’. Larrie D. Ferreiro, Introduction, Brothers At Arms, American Independence and The Men of France and Spain Who Saved it. First Vintage Books Ed. New York, 2017

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A ‘NASTY WAR’ & A WALL OF SILENCE

April 3rd, 2020

‘For the British army, fights on the Australian frontier…that war nasty and decidedly lacking in glory’. Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, the British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, Sydney, 1986

Britain, post the American War of Independence (1775-1783) – via the Treaty of Paris signed 3 September 1783 – lost ‘an empire in the west’ her thirteen (13) colonies; North and South Carolina, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and Virginia.

‘During the period 1763 and 1793 the character of the Second British Empire was being formed…the empire of commerce in the Indian and Pacific Oceans…once more the discoveries of Captain Cook were influencing the direction of Britain’s overseas expansion’. Vincent T. Harlow, Founding of the Second British Empire 1763-1793, Vol. II, 1964.

London – 18 August 1786: Lord Sydney the Home Secretary advised Treasury; According to the accounts given by the late Captain Cook His Majesty [George 111] has thought advisable to fix upon Botany Bay’. Historical Records of New South Wales

Proximity, New Holland’s geographical position, was perfectly placed for global warfare.

To that end a military campaign was mounted to dispossess the First Nations’ Peoples of their lands. See: Proximity Not Distance Drove Britain’s Invasion of New Holland.

London – 12 October, 1786: King George III ; We, reposing especial trust and confidence in your loyalty, and experience in military affairs, do, by these presents, constitute and appoint you to be said Governor of our territory called New South Wales…from the Northern extremity… Cape York…to the Southern extremity…South Cape’. His Majesty George III to our trusted and well-loved Captain Arthur Phillip, 12 October 1786.

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Botany Bay – Lord Sydney, Arthur Phillip & ‘Hush Christopher Robin’ – Mark 2

March 3rd, 2020

Rio de Janeiro – 3 September 1787: ‘Dear Nepean, this is my last letter, as I hope to sail tomorrow.

You know how much I was interested in the intended expedition against Monte Video [1783], and that it was said that the Spaniards had more troops than I supposed’. Arthur Phillip to Evan Nepean Under Secretary to Lord Sydney, Historical Records of New South Wales, Vol. 1, Parts 1 & 2.

Brazil – September 1787: As the First Fleet ‘bound for Botany Bay’ prepared to sail from Rio for New Holland via Cape Town, Captain Arthur Phillip RN ‘Sailor Mercenary Governor Spy’ was able to supply Evan Nepean, his long-time ‘handler’ at the Home Office, with vital information.

Skin in the game; to further understand Phillip’s ‘interest’  – not only had he drawn up Mark 1, the strategic plan for the failed Monte Video expedition, he captained HMS Europa in the expedition under overall command of Sir Richard Kingsmill.

‘The combination of French and Spanish naval power had proven fatal for Britain in the American War 1775-1783]…as Lord Sandwich admired frankly’. Lord Sandwich cited R.J. King, The Secret History of the Convict Colony, Sydney, 1990

The Kingsmill’s squadron’s ‘failure to act’ in 1783 had robbed the Royal Navy of much needed ‘glory’. That failure rankled and Phillip was determined to make amends.

The conquest of New Holland, now Australia, would go a long way to restoring ‘lost glory’.

If Phillip succeeded he knew he would have an opportunity to prove Spain’s ‘treasure’ colonies on the Pacific Coast of  South America would be vulnerable to attack by the Royal Navy.

Rio – September 1787:  Phillip then went on to provide Evan Nepean with up-to-date intelligence ‘obtained from a person who was there [Monte Video] all of the war [1775-1783] on the number and disposition of troops, ‘and I am certain that the account is exact’. Phillip to Nepean, 3 September 1787. Historical Records. op.cit.

New Holland – Sydney Cove 26 January 1788 was about invasion, dispossession of a Sovereign Peoples and stealing stuff.

New Holland strategically was about global warfare. See: Why New Holland – Britain + America + India + France + Spanish South America = European Australia

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Monte Video – Lord Sydney, Arthur Phillip & ‘Hush Christopher Robin’ Mark 1

March 3rd, 2020

London – 4 July 1782: Lord Sydney inherited the office of Home Secretary and a mountain of unfinished business from William Petty, Lord Shelburne. Included were the bare bones of what has become known as the Dalrymple Plan. See: Proximity not Tyranny of Distance

Whitehall – House of Commons:  The Dalrymple approved by Shelburne before he succeeded Lord North as Prime Minister, aimed to launch marauding hit and run raids on Spain’s colonial territories firstly Monte Video, present-day Uruguay, then onto  Buenos Aires, present-day Argentina,  on the Atlantic Coast of South America.

Brazil: To design a strategy and achieve this end Lord Sydney tasked Lieutenant Arthur Phillip RN who had spent nigh on three (3) years in Brazil seconded to the Portuguese Navy.

Rio: Fluent in French, German, Spanish, Dutch, Hebrew and Portuguese, Phillip was an exceptionally effective spy. Based in Rio, he had access to a myriad of anti-Spanish dissenters ripe for rebellion.

During this term of his ‘secret service’ Phillip reported directly to fellow linguist Lord Sandwich at the Admiralty.

1783: Britain, driven by the loss of her ‘Empire in the West, the thirteen (13) American ‘middle colonies’, was determined to penetrate Spain’s colonies in South America.

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Australia’s First Peoples & Britain’s ‘Empire in the South’

March 3rd, 2020

‘The short term consequences of the American War of Independence] were less than many expected.Though Britain’s eclipse as a world power was confidently predicted her economic recovery was swift, and the colonial development of Australia, New Zealand India and part of Africa went some way to compensating for the loss of the first British empire’. Professor J.A.C Cannon, Oxford Companion to British History, ed. John Cannon, 1997

The establishment of a ‘Second British Empire’ followed on quickly from America’s War of Independence 1775-1783.

Britain’s loss of her ‘Empire in the West’ the thirteen (13) ‘middle colonies’ – New York, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Carolina North and South, Connecticut, Delaware, Georgia, Maryland, Massachusetts, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island drove the invasion of New Holland and the brutal conquest of its Sovereign Peoples.

‘That the fighting against France in what was originally and essentially a European war should have spread so swiftly to the tropics was a result of many factors, most of them predicable’. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of British Naval Mastery, Fontana Press, 3rd Ed. London, 1976

SEE  MAP Read the rest of this entry »

Proximity – Not Distance – Drove Britain’s Invasion of New Holland

March 3rd, 2020

Port Jackson – 1788: ‘Here a Thousand Ships of the Line may ride in Perfect Security’. Governor Arthur Phillip RN to Lord Sydney, Historical Records of New South Wales Vol. 1, Parts 1 & 2

England – 1787: Captain John Hunter RN commander of HMS Sirius, flagship of the ‘First Fleet’ a fully funded naval expeditionary force and, second-in-command to Captain-General Governor Arthur Phillip RN, departed Portsmouth on the 13th May 1787 to invade the island continent of New Holland, now Australia.

Botany Bay – 1788: By the end of January 1788, after a voyage of eight (8) months by way of Spanish Tenerife, Portuguese Brazil and Dutch Cape Town, the eleven (11) ships with a complement of 1500 – 1300 men 221 – women, with approximately 50 children, were at anchor in Botany Bay. See: Botany Bay – Lord Sydney, Arthur Phillip & ‘Christopher Robin’ Mark 2

Port Jackson: Governor Phillip deemed Botany Bay difficult to defend. Hunter supported relocating to Port Jackson nine (9) miles to the north ‘[w]here’a thousand Ships…’

Sydney Cove:  From myriad of bays and inlets Phillip chose a ‘snug’ cove deep within the vast harbour. He named it Sydney after Home Secretary Lord Sydney. By the end of January the entire fleet were anchored there.

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BREXIT THE CROWN & CONTINUING CONNECTION

February 9th, 2020

Sydney Cove – 7 February, 1788: ‘We have come today to take possession of this fifth great continental division of the earth on behalf of the British people. I do not doubt that this country will prove the most valuable acquisition Great Britain ever made’. Governor Arthur Phillip RN, Historical Records of New South Wales, Vol.1

The island continent of New Holland, now Australia, was seized by force of arms in 1788.

Captain-General Governor Arthur Phillip RN on the 7th of February 1788 proclaimed ‘British Sovereignty’ over New Holland from ‘Cape York in the most northern extremity to the southern extremity… South Cape’.

The First Peoples did not give consent, nor was a treaty entered into. It remains to be done.

‘To seize from its original occupants all their symbols and monuments, probably forms the most enduring injury which one group of people can inflict upon another’. C.D. Rowley, The Destruction of Aboriginal Society, Penguin, 1974

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THE SWITCH 1790 – CONTEXT GLOBAL WAR 1775 – 1815

April 9th, 2019

‘For a brief moment there was hope…within a matter of years violence had broken out on both sides and Phillip would now instruct raiding parties to bring back the severed heads of warriors. The birth of Australia was meant to be so different…it need not have been this way’. Stan Grant, Talking to My Country, Text Publishing, 2017

Why is Australia ‘this way’ a divided nation? See: G is for Genocide- Colonial Breeding

‘Phillip…had instructions to deal with the ‘natives’ with ‘amity and kindness’. Professor Larissa Behrendt, The Honest History Book, – Invasion or Settlement, NewSouth Press, 2017   

What had gone so wrong with the ‘deal’? 

‘Within a generation the heads of Aborigines were shipped to Britain in glass cases to be studied as relics of a doomed race’. Grant. ibid.

What flipped the switch from ‘amity and kindness’ to ‘nasty’ creeping frontier wars that by 1838 had brought about the near destruction of Australia’s First Nations?

London – 1838:  ‘On the subject of the Aborigines of New Holland...It is impossible to contemplate the condition or the prospects of that unfortunate race without the deepest commiseration. Still it is impossible that the government should forget that the original aggression was ours’. Select Committee of the British Parliament, Lord John Russell to [Governor] Sir George Gipps, 21 December, 1838. Historical Records of New South Wales Vol.1

First Nations’ authors, Stan Grant and Larissa Behrendt, hone in on a critical pinch-point that occurred in the first decade of Britain’s ‘original aggression’.

‘Military and police raids against dissenting Aboriginal groups lasted from the eighteenth to the twentieth centuries. These raids commenced by December 1790’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, A History of the Law in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Sydney 1995

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DARK MATTER – ‘McMafia’ MACARTHUR & ‘FIERY INDIAN RUM’ A TEETOTALLER’S DRUG OF RUIN FOR OTHERS

April 9th, 2019

‘Until, the year 1823 the government of New South Wales was vested entirely in the Governor who worked under the control of the Secretary of State for the Home Department….He was an autocrat, wielding the widest powers, amenable to no criticism but than of the Minister [13,000 miles (21,000 km) away] in England’. Professor Ernest Scott, A Short History of Australia, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1953

Captain Arthur Phillip RN, Britain’s first commissioned Governor of Australia ‘broken in health’ after five (5) traumatic years of service, returned to England.

Phillip, accompanied by Bennalong and Yemmerrawannie two (2) Aboriginal warriors, departed Sydney for London in the Atlantic at the end 1792. See: Manly – Location, Location, Location

Whitehall due to a ‘policy of drift’ failed to commission a second governor.

‘For the length of the interregnum the British Government was greatly at fault’. J.J. Achmutty, John Hunter, Australian Dictionary of Biography See: A Black Hole the First Interregnum December 1792-September 1795

London – 1789:  William Wyndham Grenville, a young cousin of Prime Minister Pitt, replaced Lord Sydney as Home Secretary in June 1789. In mid-October the London Gazette informed the public reinforcements were to be sent to New South Wales.

‘War Office: A Corps. of Foot for New South Wales Major Francis Grose from the Half-Pay of the late 96th Regiment, is appointed to be the Major Commandant’https://www.the gazette.co.uk/London/issue/13140/p653

Whitehall – January 1790: ‘I am commanded to signify to you the King’s pleasure that directions be immediately given for the embarkation of the Corps raised for service in New South Wales and commanded by Major Grose’. Right Hon.W.W. Grenville to Secretary of War, London, 20 January 1790

1790 – 1 JANUARY @ SYDNEY 

‘No communication  whatever having passed with our native country since the 13th May 1787…The misery and horror of such a situation cannot be imparted even by those who have suffered under it’. Sydney’s First Four Years, Marine Captain Watkin Tench, ed. F.L. Firtzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

The previous year a look-out had be erected ;’on a high bluff, called South-head, at the entrance of the harbour…every morning from daylight until the sun sunk, die we sweep the horizon, in the hope of seeing a sail’. 

Norfolk Island – March 1790: Creeping starvation forced Governor Phillip evacuate 50% of ‘his people’ to Norfolk Island. He took the opportunity of ridding himself of Major Robert Ross the troublesome commander of the Sydney Garrison.

‘No one in the colony caused Phillip more trouble than Major Ross. Of all Phillip’s problems, including the terrible famine of 1789 and 1790, probably none was so harassing as the persistent antagonism, both covert and open, which Ross pursued against him’.  John Moore, The First Fleet Marines, 1786-1792, Queensland University Press, 1986

HMS Supply after landing marines, convicts and supplies would return to Sydney with Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King RN. King was a trusted confrere who had served under Phillip in the recent American war 1775-1783.

China: HMS Sirius the fleet’s flagship, largest of the two (2) king’s ships, was to sail onto China and arrange an urgent rescue mission.

Sydney – March: ‘A further retrenchment of our ration…four pounds of flour, two and a half of salt pork, and one and a half of rice per week’. Tench. ibid.

In foul weather, on the 19th of March, Sirius had swung on her anchor, hit a submerged reef, and sank. All souls landed safely. The crew one hundred and sixty (160) Royal Navy personnel were now marooned on the island along the evacuees.

Sydney – 6 April 1790: ‘I saw captain Ball [Supply] make an extraordinary motion with his hand, which too plainly indicated that something disastrous had happened…we learned, that the Sirius had been wrecked on Norfolk Island’.

The following day Governor Phillip called a meeting-in-council;  ‘at the present [weekly] ration…2 pounds [salted] pork until 2d July, 2 ½ pounds flour 20 August, 2 pounds rice 1 October’. 

The decision was taken to send HMS Supply to Batavia for relief supplies.

Indonesia – 17 April 1790:  HMS Supply sailed for Jakarta. Captain Ball RN was to purchase tons of supplies.and charter a Dutch ship to bring them to Sydney.  Ball would return to Sydney with as much food and medicines as Supply could carry.

Tench says; ‘all hopes were now concentrated in the little Supply’.  In more ways than one. Aboard was Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King who was to make his way to England ‘by whatever means’ and deliver Governor Phillip’s despatches.

Some had been written after HMS Sirius’s epic voyage of circumnavigation to and from Africa (October 1788 – May 1789). Together with a covert letter requesting; ‘a regiment…six hundred[enforcers] to guard the settlement effectually against the  ferocious incursions of the natives’. Anon. Historical Records of New South Wales

‘Happily Captain Hunter, and every other person belonging to her [Sirius] was saved’.

Unhappily for Governor Phillip Captain Hunter, with all the details of his extraordinary voyage via Drake’s Passage and Cape Horn, was stranded on Norfolk Island.

Whitehall:  Phillip’s aim was to have Gidley King, who had sailed with him in HMS Europa to attack Monte Video (January 1783,) add weight and confirm the enormous benefits that could be derived from securing the Sydney settlement as a strategic military and naval base.  See Proximity not Distance Drove the Invasion of New Holland.

Sydney – May 1790: ‘Without distinction… a further reduction in our ration….to every child of more than 18 months old…and every grown person, two pounds of pork, two and a half pounds of half flour, two pounds of rice, or a quart of pease

IF THIS GRABS YOUR INTEREST – READ ON

‘The great change came in the arrival with the Second Fleet of the first companies of the New South Wales Corps [among them] Lieutenant John Macarthur  – a central figure in the military ‘mafia’ which quickly established itself as Australia’s first governing and property elite’. Nigel Rigby, Peter van der Merwe, Glyn Williams, National Maritime Museum Greenwich, Pacific Explorations, Bloomsbury, Adlard Coles, London 2018 

1790 – June, Sydney: The first contingent of enforcers – one hundred and fifteen (115)  of Foot, the New South Wales Corps, -seventeen (17) officers and ninety-eight (98) rank and file arrived at Sydney in June 1790 aboard Neptune, Scarborough, Suprize, the death ships of Britain’s Grim Armada the second fleet.

‘The slave trade’ declared Marine Captain Hill who sailed in the Suprize in a letter written to William Wilberforce England’s prominent anti-slavery advocate ‘is merciful compared with what I have seen in this fleet’. See: Britain’s Grim Armada, The Dead and the Living Dead.

Major Francis Grose, their commanding officer remained in England to recruit members to meet establishment requirements. He would not arrive in Sydney until February 1792.

Meantime at Sydney Lieutenant Macarthur, a junior officer took advantage of long-standing dissension among his fellow officers and moved swiftly  to fill the power vacuum created by Grose’s absence. See: The Switch 1790 – Context – War With France 1793-1815

1792 – February, Sydney: Major Grose arrived aboard Pitt in February 1792 with an additional two hundred (200) troops; ‘a proportion of the rank and file were drawn from the Savoy military prison’. Brian Fitzpatrick, The Australian People 1788-1945, Melbourne University Press, 1951

‘[Grose] had not been many hours in charge before he introduced into the Government of the colony the same system, and very much the same forms, which prevailed in his regiment…From this period, the ascendancy of the military dates. They became an aristocracy’ .M H. Bladen, Journal, Royal Australian Historical Society, Vol. I

1792 – 13 December, Sydney: The day after Governor Phillip’s departure (12 December 1792), Major Grose assumed the ‘widest powers…vested entirely in the Governor’.

Although Whitehall, albeit belatedly – February 1794 –  had appointed Captain John Hunter RN Australia’s second governor,  ‘inexplicably’ this hero of the ‘First Fleet’ would not reach Sydney until September 1795.

‘Until 1795 racketeering officers conducted the government of the settlement, and the New South Wales Corps, a regiment of army derelicts and delinquents raised for this special service, relieved the [Sydney garrison] marines’. Fitzpatrick. ibid.

1792 – 1795: Australia’s First Nations’ Peoples whose land Britain invaded in 1788 were abandoned to ‘a rogue military outfit’ the aptly named New South Wales ‘Rum’ Corps.

1792 – 14 December: ‘Major Grose, by virtue of his military status, assumed the command, as Lieutenant-Governor. It does not appear that Grose’s antecedents had qualified him in any way for the performance of gubernatorial functions. He had been trained from his youth to arms and was essentially and only a soldier’. Bladen. op.cit.

1794 – December, England:  Major Grose, wounded in the War of American Independence (1775-83), unable to bear the heat of another long Sydney summer, departed for England at the end of 1794.

Power passed to Captain William Paterson Grose’s second-in-command also a wounded veteran of America’s Revolutionary War.

There were plans to use the corps in expeditions against Panama, Peru and the Phillipines, but nothing eventuated and the Corps’ first experience of war came in January 1795 on the Hawkesbury River north-west of Sydney’. Dr Peter Stanley, The Remote Garrison, The British Army in Australia 1788-1870, Kangaroo Press, 1986

While Governor Hunter was still on the high seas Captain Paterson took a military decision that compounded difficulties on the Hawkesbury – Deerubbun – River. He moved against the local Dharug Aborigines sending a detachment of sixty-six (66) troops and two (2) officers to the river. See: A Worm Hole – Richard Atkin’s Diary & The First Black Hole 1792-1795

THE BACK STORY

‘No one who knows anything about the history of the New South Wales Corps will deny the pernicious system of spirit traffic was universal, and that as already stated, enormous profits were made by the [Rum Corps] officers in defiance of repeated orders’. Bladen. ibid.

1795 -September: The colony of New South Wales remained under absolute ‘autocratic’ military rule until Governor John Hunter RN arrived in last quarter of 1795.

‘It was a great misfortune that this period of military rule occurred; because in the course of it the colony was brought to degradation by drink, corruption, and general iniquity, which required years to mitigate’. Ernest Scott. ibid

Lieutenant John Macarthur, clever ambitious and chief ‘racketeer’ who, in June 1790, arrived with first contingent of the New South Wales Corps was ‘the power behind the military throne’.

Teetotaller Macarthur’s power lay with ‘the pernicious system of spirit traffic’.

Rum from India oiled every wheel and made ‘certain officers’ very rich. At his instigation some fellow officers pooled their monies and bought shares valued at £200. The enterprise raised £4000. Visiting ships were chartered to sail to Bengal and buy the rum

‘Rum afforded the best and speediest means of maddening the brain and sickening the stomach…The men got to their third nip before they fell upon each other screaming, yelling and punching the living daylights out of each other’.

It seemed that Smokey rum was made up from the foulest, rankest, colonial tobacco that could be found shoved into a rum barrel – filled to the top with rum – sealed and left to ferment’. Wayne Kelly, Booze Built Australia, 1994.

Officers formed cartels, pledged not to under-cut each other, they operated as both wholesale retail merchants. Rum as currency enabled the military ‘aristocracy’ maintain a stranglehold over the whole of the colony’s commercial dealings

‘Every commodity arriving in port they bought cheaply and sold at extortionate prices’. H.V. Evatt, Rum Rebellion, A Study of the overthrow of Governor Bligh by John Macarthur and the New South Wales Corps, Angus and Robertson, 1944

1795 – September: Fuelled by grog – greed and guns – ruled the colony until Governor John Hunter RN arrived in Sydney in the last quarter of 1795.

In 1800 Hunter was recalled to London and replaced by Lieutenant Phillip Gidley King RN. See: Alice – Down The Rabbit Hole With Hunter

Following a duel in which Macarthur severely wounded Colonel William Paterson, his commanding officer, Governor Gidley King sent him to England for censure.

However due to misadventure – shipwreck and loss of documents – the case against Macarthur collapsed from lack of evidence. A relieved Macarthur resigned his commission, sought friends in high places and successfully undermined Governor King who too was recalled to London. See: Alice – Down the Rabbit Hole with King

In order to diversify from, cattle and cropping to sheep grazing and wool production, Lord ‘Plantations’ Camden handed Macarthur a large grant – 5000 acres of Aboriginal land.

‘New South Wales had now proved to be the grave-yard of the ambitions both of Hunter and King he [Joseph] Banks knew that both Hunter and King had failed to repel the attacks of the officers and rum traffickers and that the new governor must be a man of sterner fibre’. H.V. Evatt. ibid.

Banks convinced government Captain Bligh RN, hero or anti-hero of the ‘Mutiny on the Bounty’, had credentials to be a strong administrator and possessed the ability to rein in an out of control military.

1805 – May, Soho Square: London: There was however another reason for Bank’s advocacy of Bligh to be Britain’s fourth ‘autocratic naval governor’ of Australia. 

Sir Joseph Banks a wealthy botanist with the ear of government played no small part in Bounty Bligh’s appointment. Keeper of the ‘King’s Flock’ at Kew, Banks had an obsessive interest in preserving the integrity of the ‘royal’ flock’s blood-line.

With an aristocrat’s instinctive distrust of the up-start Macarthur he needed the cantankerous Bligh, then a frequent carping caller on Bank’s at his London home, to keep a sharp eye on Macarthur. And Macarthur knew it.

1806 –  8 August, Sydney: Governor William Bligh RN, full of confidence and enthusiasm, arrived in Sydney aboard Lady Madeline Sinclair accompanied by HMS Porpoise, with an equally cantankerous Captain Short at the helm.

Bligh could not have conceived that cold blustery winter’s morning, the military opposition that plagued Governor Phillip and triumphed over Hunter and King (2nd and 3rd naval governors) would – within 18 months – overthrow and imprison him. See: Coup-ee

‘One of Bligh’s first official acts was to publish a Government and General Order prohibiting under heavy penalties the use of spirits as a means of exchange. The publication of this order is in itself a proof that neither Hunter nor King had been able to enforce obedience to the general orders’. Bladen. ibid.

Alcohol was the colony’s only currency, all work was paid for with rum. Everything bought or sold was exchanged for rum. When Governor  Bligh moved to stop its importation he threatened the wealth and power of the military ‘mafia‘.

EPILOGUE

Military power was the most decisive fact about the early settlements; it was the frame within which everything else happened’. R. Connell and T.H. Irving, Class Structure in Australian History, Documents, Narrative and Argument, 1987

At the beginning of 1808 officers of the New South Wales Corps, egged on by ex-officer Macarthur, now a powerful, preening man-about-town proud of his 5000 acres, resorted to mutiny.

1808 – 26 January, Sydney: At Macarthur’s instigation Governor Bligh was seized and held prisoner in Government House. See: Australia Day Rebellion – 26 January 1808.

Macarthur was the common denominator in the downfall of Governors Hunter, King and Bligh.