HMS GUARDIAN & JOSEPH BANK’S GARDEN

September 13th, 2016

1790 – 1 January, Sydney Cove: ‘On the shores of this vast ocean…on the summit of the hill [South Head], every morning from day-light until the sun sunk, did we sweep the horizon, in hope of seeing a sail. At every fleeting speck which arose from the bosom of the sea, the heart bounded, and the telescope was lifted to the eye. If a ship appeared here, we knew she must be bound for us’. Marine Watkin Tench, Sydney’s First Four Years, F.L Fitzhardinge, Angus and Robertson, 1961

Since January 1788 the Englishmen of ‘First Fleet’ had been marooned; ‘entirely cut off no communication whatever having passed with our native country since the 13th May, 1787, the day of our departure from Portsmouth… the misery and horror of such a situation cannot be imparted, even by those who have suffered under it’. Tench. op. cit.

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BETRAYED – THOMAS BARRETT

September 13th, 2016

‘The arm of a large tree situated between the Tents of the Men and Women was fixt upon as a Gallowsthe body hung an hour and was then buried in a grave dug very near the Gallows’. Surgeon Bowes Smyth, Journal 1787-1789, Australian Documents Library, Sydney,1979

1788 – 27 February, Sydney Cove: Thomas Barrrett was the first man hanged in European Australia.

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MACHIAVELLAN MACARTHUR POST GOVERNOR PHILLIP

July 29th, 2016

1792-1795: ‘For the length of the interregnum the British government was greatly at fault….His [Hunter’s] commission as captain-general and governor-in-chief was dated 6 February 1794 [he] did not sail until 25 February 1795…arrived [Sydney] 7 September 1795 and assumed office four days later’. J.J. Auchmuty, Hunter, Australian Dictionary of Biography

1792 – 12 December, Sydney: Governor Arthur Phillip RN, after repeated requests for repatriation, received approval to return to England and sailed for home in the Atlantic on 12 December 1792.

London failed to commission an immediate successor.

‘There are two kinds of error: those of commission, doing something that should not be done, and those of omission, not doing something that should be done. The latter are much more serious than, the former’. Kennneth Hooper and Willam Hopper, The Puritan Gift, Forward Professor Russell Lincoln Ackoff, I.B. Tauris, New York, 2009

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BRITONS NEVER NEVER SHALL BE SLAVES !!!!

July 19th, 2016

A Time Line

Slavery as punishment… a king or magistrate could mercifully spare and enslave a man whose crime had forfeited his right to life. White Over Black — 1550-1812, Winthrop D. Jordan, 1969. 

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CAPE YORK TO SOUTH CAPE – YOUR LAND IS MY LAND

July 19th, 2016

‘Discovery gave what was termed an inchoate title which could only be developed further by actual occupation’. Henry Reynolds, Aboriginal Sovereignty, Three Nations, One Australia, Allen and Unwin, 1996

1770 – 22 August, Cape York: In the name of King George III of England Lieutenant James Cook, without consent of its owners, claimed ‘discovery’ of the entire coast of New Holland from ‘Cape York in the most northern extremity…to South Cape’.

‘Hugh Grotius [1538-1645] remark[ed] that an act of discovery was sufficient to give clear title to sovereignty ‘only when it is accompanied by actual possession’. Reynolds. op.cit.

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A CRACKER-JACK OPINION – NO SWEAT

July 19th, 2016

The whole claim of sovereignty and ownership on the basis of terra nullius was manifestly based on a misreading of Australian circumstance, not that this prevented Phillip from hoisting the Union Jack in 1788 and expropriating the owners of Sydney Cove.

Not until the High Court gave its Mabo judgement in 1992 was there a legal recognition that Aborigines owned and possessed their traditional lands’. Stuart Mac Intyre, A Concise History of Australia, Melbourne University Press, 2004 

ACTUAL OCCUPATION: ‘EXISTING IN FACT’ – OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY

1771 – England: In  July 1771 Lieutenant James Cook RN returned to England from the Endeavour voyage and reported New Holland was inhabited.

‘The natives of the country…live in Tranquility which is not disturb’d by the inequality of condition’. James Cook, Endeavour Journal

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INVASION – THE GREAT BLACK WHITE DIVIDE

June 20th, 2016

The Old Privy Council decision in Cooper V Stuart [1889] was based on the factual error that Australia was peacefully settled and that Aborigines were never in possession of the land. That case was also inconsistent with the common law decisions of the United States, Canada and New Zealand. In short, it was wrongly decided’. Professor Bruce Kercher, An Unruly Child, A History of Law in Australia, Allen & Unwin, 1994

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A VERY CONVENIENT THEORY – SMALLPOX 1789 – IT WAS THE MACASSANS STUPID

January 25th, 2016

 1789, April: ‘Smallpox had decimated the indigenous population probably not brought by the Europeans, as first feared, but possible introduced by Indonesian traders visiting the far northern coast of Australia…By a strange coincidence, smallpox reached Port Jackson at about the same time as the First Fleet’. Cassandra Pybus, Black Founders, UNSW Press, 2006 

1789- April: If, in April 1789 smallpox reached Sydney in that way; ‘by a strange coincidence’ it would have been very ‘strange’ indeed. To  examine the evidence and then put forward such a ludicrous argument is risible.

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A LETHAL WEAPON: SMALLPOX – ROBERT ROSS & DAVID COLLINS – BOSTON 1775: SYDNEY 1789 – MAJOR ROSS & CAPTAIN COLLINS

January 22nd, 2016

1775 – BOSTON

‘From time to time throughout history, peoples and governments around the world have used micro-organisms as efficient and cost-effective weapons of mass destruction. In 1763, in the earliest recorded deliberate release of a virus, Sir Jeffrey Amherst, British Commander-in-Chief authorised the distribution of smallpox-contaminated blankets to native Americans who were harassing European settlers around the garrison at Fort Pitt in Pennsylvania’. Professor Dorothy H. Crawford, Invisible Enemies, Edinburgh University Press, 2001.

1763 – America: The British General Thomas Gage served as second-in-command to General Amherst during the Indian Wars. In 1763 North American Indian tribes united under Chief Pontiac and moved against the British. At first their efforts were successful but later, when laying siege to Fort Pitt, they were out-gunned and not only out-gunned:

“We gave them two Blankets and an Handkerchief out of the Small Pox Hospital, I hope it will have the desired effect”. General Gage was implicated in the distribution of those ‘smallpox-contaminated blankets’ among Indian tribes ‘harassing’ the British at Fort Pitt, now Pittsburgh.

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TASMANIA – A WAR GRAVE – THE BACK STORY

January 11th, 2016

‘The first European settlements, from Port Jackson in 1788 [Tasmania 1803], Moreton Bay, Swan River and Adelaide during the next fifty years were intensive…This meant a complete undermining of the Aborigines’ way of life’. Professor A.P. Elkin, the Australian Aborigines, Epilogue, 5th edition, 1973

1792 – December: Governor Arthur Phillip RN returned to England after a five (5) year tenure as Britain’s first commissioned governor of New South Wales.

Whitehall failed to appoint a successor. As a result, by default, the immense power invested in Arthur Phillip, said to be unique in Britain’s long history of colonisation, fell to the military.

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